Muslim Statistics (Health and Disability)
This page contains statistics concerning health and disability among Muslims. For further statistics of a related nature, see Alcohol & Drugs and Education & Employment (note: Topic and Country sections contain different statistics).
Numerous studies have shown Muslims suffer from death anxiety more than any other religious or non-religious group.
Abstract: A survey design was used to examine if there are any differences between a Christian, a Muslim, and a non-religious group in five personality factors (dominance, liveliness, warmth, apprehension, and sensitivity), general well-being, and death anxiety. No significant differences were found with any of the personality factors between the three groups. Religious participants (Christians and Muslims combined) scored significantly higher for general well-being than non-religious participants. Christians scored significantly lower for death anxiety than both non-religious and Muslim groups, and Muslims scored significantly higher than the non-religious group. These findings are discussed with reference to Terror Management Theory. Suggestions for future research include deeper investigation into beliefs of the afterlife and inclusion of more religions into psychological studies.
The authors of the following study explain their results in terms of a theory called "death apprehension". This says that religion can have varying effects on death anxiety, depending on the actual beliefs held: belief in a demanding and vindictive God and the certainty about the reality of an afterlife can both lead to more anxiety. On the other hand, abiding by religious teachings and believing in divine forgiveness can reduce death anxiety.
Muslims seem to be more likely to believe in a vindictive god, and less likely to believe in a forgiving god. The authors put this down to fundamental differences in Islamic and Christian religions. The lowest fear of death was seen in the non-religious in America and Christians in Malaysia.
Depression & Suicide
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The advisor of the president of Afghanistan in health matters estimates that each year 2300 Afghan women and girls, aged between 15 to 40 years who suffer from depression, commit suicide.Mr. Kakkar said that on the basis of the above information the rate of suicide among women is 5 out of every 100,000.
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In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health of Afghanistan had estimated that two-thirds of the Afghan population suffered from mental illnesses.
While reliable statistics on anything are hard to come by in Iraq, officials say there have been as many as 50 suicides this year in this city of 350,000 — at least double the rate in the United States — compared with 80 all of last year. The most common methods among women are self-immolation and gunshots.Among the many explanations given, like poverty and madness, one is offered most frequently: access to the Internet and to satellite television, which came after the start of the war. This has given young women glimpses of a better life, unencumbered by the traditions that have constricted women for centuries to a life of obedience and child-rearing, one devoid of romance.
The consequences have been devastating. Nigeria has the highest maternal mortality rate in Africa and one of the world’s highest rates of fistula, a condition that can occur when the pressure of childbirth tears a hole between the vagina and the bladder or rectum. Many women are left incontinent for life. Up to 800,000 women suffer from fistula in Nigeria.
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Dr Waaldijk operates on up to 600 women a year, with no electricity or running water... Some have been divorced by their husbands - it is estimated that up to half of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria are divorced... The Nigerian federal Government has attempted to outlaw child marriage. In 2003 it passed the Child Rights Act, prohibiting marriage under the age of 18. In the Muslim northern states, though, there has been fierce resistance to the Act, with many people portraying it as antiIslamic.
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Half of Nigeria’s 36 states have passed the Act, but it has been adopted by only one of the dozen Muslim states - and even that one made a crucial amendment substituting the age of 18 for the term “puberty”.
In one of the most comprehensive reports on AIDS covering the Muslim world, experts warned of serious repercussions if governments continued to sweep the problem under the carpet.
In a report released by the Seattle-based think tank, the National Bureau of Asian Research, they said "if leaders continue to ignore the problem, AIDS could debilitate or even destabilize some of these societies by killing large numbers of people in the 15 to 49-year age group."
This would deprive the Muslim countries of some of their best, brightest, and most economically productive members, said Laura Kelley and Nicholas Eberstadt in the report.
A private infectious disease specialist, Kelly had previously undertaken AIDS research for the US National Intelligence Council as well as other diseases for the USAID, the principal foreign aid agency of the United States, while Eberstadt is a scholar at American Enterprise Institute, a conservative Washington-based think tank.
"An important take home message for all Muslim nations is that real behaviours on the streets are sometimes in marked contrast to the expected behaviours of good Muslims and that is something that leaders in these countries must deal with," Kelly told AFP.
The report said that even though the Muslim world was home to behaviors such as premarital sex, adultery, prostitution, homosexuality, and intravenous drug use -- which help spread the HIV virus that causes AIDS -- many governments have been slow to respond to the rapidly spreading disease.
"What is especially troubling to behold is the reluctance to admit that Muslims engage in exactly those same dangerous behaviors that support the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS elsewhere," it said, blaming "deeply rooted cultural and religious attitudes.
"This reluctance even to recognize the problem will only accelerate the epidemic and make it more difficult for the international community to provide meaningful support and treatment," the report said.
"We would have thought the Muslim world was in a sense vaccinated from this kind of pandemic but in fact the dreadful news is that it is not, said Michael Birt, the director of National Bureau of Asian Research's center for health.
"Now with the Muslim world becoming involved, its truly a global crisis," he told AFP.
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Officially, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates the total HIV population of North Africa, the Middle East, and predominantly Muslim Asia at nearly one million people.
At the end of 2003, UNAIDS estimated that up to 420,000 in Mali, 180,000 people in Indonesia, 150,000 in Pakistan, and 61,000 in Iran had HIV/AIDS.
"Those numbers, however, are severely understated," Kelly and Eberstadt said in a separate report on Foreign Policy magazine, published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington.
They said UNAIDS figures depended upon surveillance data -- "thus a lack of information can be taken as a lack of infection."
UNAIDS data on the number of people living with HIV/AIDS is completely missing for Afghanistan, Turkey, and Somalia, "all nations with large numbers of at-risk populations," they said.The study cited Iran and Bangladesh as among Muslim governments that seem to be combating the problem effectively.
"This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM (men who have sex with men) in at least a few MENA countries," said a study published in PLoS Medicine.
The study, titled "Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?", warned that the levels "could already be in a concentrated state among several MSM groups."
It showed that the rates of HIV infection among MSM in some countries have exceeded the five percent threshold which defines concentrated epidemics, namely in Egypt, Sudan and Tunisia.
The study put the rates of HIV infection among MSM in Egypt's main cities of Cairo and Alexandria at 5.7 percent and 5.9 percent respectively, while the rate among receptive MSM in Sudan's capital reached 9.3 percent.
Tunisia's total rate was put at 4.9 percent, ranging between 0.8 and 6.3 percent in three regions.
"There is an urgent need to expand HIV surveillance and access to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services in a rapidly narrowing window of opportunity to prevent the worst of HIV transmission among MSM in the Middle East and North Africa," the study said."Prevention of male-to-male HIV transmission must be set as a top priority for HIV/AIDS strategies in MENA," it added.
Alriyadyh Arabic language daily, citing an unnamed medical study in the Gulf Kingdom, said nearly 12 per cent of Saudi Arabia’s 20 million national men are suffering from impotence and that 80 per cent of the cases are associated with psychological problems.
“Saudis are the sixth largest consumers of sex drugs in the world…their consumption is as much as 10 times that of Russia although the population in that country is more than 10 times the Saudis,” it said.
“Besides psychological factors, diabetes is the main cause of impotence in Saudi Arabia as nearly 15 per cent of the Saudis suffer from that disease against only 3-5 per cent in other countries…other factors include the high rate of high blood pressure cases, obesity and lack of exercise.”
According to the study, Arab countries spend more than $10 billion on Viagra and other anti-impotence medicines every year and that Saudi Arabia alone spends over $1.5 billion.It is followed by Egypt and the UAE, which spend about $on e billion and $500 million respectively.
It has been estimated that almost half of all Muslims in the world are inbred
Statistical research on Arabic countries shows that up to 34 percent of all marriages in Algiers are consanguine (blood related), 46 percent in Bahrain, 33 percent in Egypt, 80 percent in Nubia (southern area in Egypt), 60 percent in Iraq, 64 percent in Jordan, 64 percent in Kuwait, 42 percent in Lebanon, 48 percent in Libya, 47 percent in Mauritania, 54 percent in Qatar, 67 percent in Saudi Arabia, 63 percent in Sudan, 40 percent in Syria, 39 percent in Tunisia, 54 percent in the United Arabic Emirates and 45 percent in Yemen.
According to a global report on birth defects which was conducted in 2006, the following countries are the ones most affect by birth defects per 1000 live births:
2. Saudi Arabia 81.3/1000
3. Benin 77.9/1009
4. Burkina Faso 77.0/1000
5. Palestinian territories 76.6/1000
6. United Arab Emirates 75.9/1000
7. Tajikistan 75.2/1000
8. Iraq 74.9/1000
9. Kuwait 74.9/1000
10. Afghanistan 74.8/1000
11. Oman 74.8/1000
12. Syria 74.3/1000
13. Pakistan 73.5/1000
14. Nigeria 73.5/1000
15. Kyrgyzstan 73.4/1000
16. Qatar 73.4/1000
17. Bahrain 73.3/1000
18. Jordan 73.1/1000
19. Libya 73.0/1000
20. Tunisia 72.7/1000
21. Morocco 72.3/1000
22. Yemen 72.1/1000
"Obesity occurs much more often in women in Gulf states where it affects 50 to 70 percent of married women and 30 to 50 percent of married men," said a study presented by Qatari expert Issam Abd Rabbu at the "Facts About Obesity" seminar.
Rabbu said the problem was also taking a toll on children, "affecting five to 10 percent of pre-school children" at a rate that grows "to 10 to 15 percent of primary school children ... then 20 to 40 percent for secondary school children".These obesity rates are "much higher than in developed countries", he said in his study, called "Obesity: The Illness of the Century."
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A 2001 government survey of 68,000 women found that one in five between ages 15 and 49 had been deliberately overfed. And nearly 70 percent — and even more among teenagers — said they did not regret it.
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Studies indicate that up to 70 percent of women in the Gulf states are obese. According to The Economist magazine’s world rankings, the countries with the highest obesity rates among women are Muslim countries: 1. Qatar 2. Saudi Arabia 3. Lebanon. (The United States ranked 8th on this list.)The picture is not much brighter in America, where Muslim women still face high rates of obesity and its accompanying health problems.
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In its report about the conference on Wednesday, the Saudi Okaz newspaper cited data by the World Health Organization showing Saudi Arabia has one of the largest rates of obesity at around 35.6 per cent, the third behind the tiny Pacific Island nations of Nauru at 78.5 per cent and Tonga at 56 per cent.
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“Obesity kills an average 20,000 people in Saudi Arabia,” Dr Ayed Al Qahtani, a government specialist, told a medical conference in Riyadh, according to local newspapers.“Latest statistics showed that nearly 70 per cent of the Kingdom’s population are suffering from fatness, which shortens the presumed human life by an average 20 years.”
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The study cited results of a survey released by the Saudi Diabetes and Endocrine Association (SDEA) in 2010 showing that over 70 per cent of the Saudi population is alarmingly obese.
The small oil-rich Gulf state ranked sixth globally for prevalence of obesity and had the highest rate of obesity among boys in the Middle East and North African region.By 2015, it is predicted that 73 percent of women and 69 percent of men will be obese in Qatar.
Most Muslims are reluctant organ donors, yet are eager recipients. Once of the reasons given is the belief that you should not deface the human body. Apparently the defacement of the bodies of non-Muslims are fine with most of the Muslims who believe this. And almost a quarter of those surveyed said they would only want to donate an organ if they knew it was going to another Muslim.
Dr. Adnan Sharif, a Muslim kidney specialist completing his training, led an international survey to find out why Muslims agree with organ donation, and would happily accept a transplant, but aren't so keen on consenting to being donors.
In his presentation to delegates at the 23rd international congress of the Transplantation Society, Sharif said nearly three-quarters of the 891 participants in the survey said they would be glad to receive an organ if needed but only 10.6 per cent of respondents were registered organ donors.
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"Muslims have this argument, this belief, that organ donation is a sin even though most scholars say it's okay, and in fact welcome, because of the belief that to save one life is to save all humanity.
"Transplantation obviously did not exist when the Koran was written. There is a line that says you shouldn't deface the human body. It is a reference to ancient Arab practices of defacing bodies after death. I think people do use that as an excuse not to be organ donors," said Sharif, who conducted the survey with four colleagues from the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, England.
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The online and printed survey, which solicited respondents through word of mouth, social networking, Muslim organizations and mosques, is expected to be published in a medical journal soon. He said the survey detected some disturbing attitudes that would appear to be based on prejudice. For instance, almost a quarter of respondents said they would only want to donate an organ if they knew it was going to another Muslim. About 10 per cent said they would prefer to receive an organ from a fellow Muslim.
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Nigeria now accounts for more than half the world's polio victims.
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In parts of Muslim northern Nigeria, only women can enter households if the husband is not present, so all the vaccinators are women, and they are paid a small amount of money for their time.
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In parts of northern Nigeria more than 50% of the children have never been vaccinated against polio, and often their parents refuse to cooperate because of mistrust and suspicion.
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More than a third of all children in OIC countries excluding the Arab sub-region live with persistent malnutrition. Close to half of under-fives in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Yemen are both underweight and stunted. Levels of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months after birth within the OIC are among the lowest in the world.
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Only six countries in the world are polio-endemic, five of which are OIC countries.
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While in terms of overweight men and women are equal, often the percentage of women who are obese is twice that of men. Possible reasons for this disparity could be the culture of women staying at home, leading to a lack of exercise.
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According to the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (CAGS) there are over 250 types of genetic disorders in the United Arab Emirates, the country seeing the fifth highest rate of inter-family marriages, with half being between members of the same family. The true tragedy linked to this cultural habit are the cases of children with birth defects, In Qatar, about 19,000 children are born every year, and the Paediatric Surgery Department of Doha's Hamad Medical Corporation carries out about 3,000 paediatric operations every year, including over 200 on children born with serious birth defects. This is why at Qatar's First International Paediatric Surgery Congress and the 12th edition of the Pan-Arab Paediatric Surgeons Association Congress there was discussion on the surgical procedures for birth defects, as it is the main problem in the sector. 
After taking account of the different age structures of the groups, Muslims had the highest rates of disability. Almost a quarter of Muslim females (24 per cent) had a disability, as did one in five (21 per cent) Muslim males. 
90% of British Pakistani's in England and Wales are Muslim.
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But the statistics for recessive genetic illness in cousin marriages make sobering reading.
British Pakistanis are 13 times more likely to have children with genetic disorders than the general population - they account for just over 3% of all births but have just under a third of all British children with such illnesses.Indeed, Birmingham Primary Care Trust estimates that one in ten of all children born to first cousins in the city either dies in infancy or goes on to develop serious disability as a result of a recessive genetic disorder.
• Muslims have the highest rate of disability of all faith groups, controlling for age.
- Morris, G., & McAdie, T. (2009). "Are personality, well-being and death anxiety related to religious affiliation?" Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12 (2), 115-120 DOI: 10.1080/13674670802351856
- Ellis, L., Wahab, E., & Ratnasingan, M. (2012). "Religiosity and fear of death: a three‐nation comparison". Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1-21 DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2011.652606
- 2300 Women and Girls Commit Suicide in Afghanistan Each Year - BBC Persian (Translated by RAWA), July 31, 2010
- Tim Arango - Where Arranged Marriages Are Customary, Suicides Grow More Common - The New York Times, June 6, 2012
- "Nigeria Child Brides-Broken Lives", Times Online, November 28, 2008 (archived), http://www.wunrn.com/news/2008/11_08/11_24_08/112408_nigeria.htm.
- Muslim Nations Face AIDS Reality - AFP, June 29, 2005
- HIV 'epidemic emerging in Middle East' - AFP, August 3, 2011
- Saudis are world's 6th largest consumers of sex drugs - Emirates 24/7, March 4, 2012
- More stillbirths among immigrants - Jyllands-Posten, February 27, 2009
- Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs - Tadmouri et al. Reproductive Health 2009 6:17 doi:10.1186/1742-4755-6-17
- Nicolai Sennels - Muslim Inbreeding: Impacts on intelligence, sanity, health and society - EuropeNews, August 9, 2010
- Christianson, A., Howson, C., Modell, B., 2006. March of Dimes. "Global Report on Birth Defects", March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, White Plains, New York.
- Up to 70% of Gulf women are obese - Middle East Online, September 29, 2005
- Sharon LaFraniere - In Mauritania, Seeking to End an Overfed Ideal - The New York Times, July 4, 2007
- Caroline May - The burka may be making Muslim women fatter by discouraging exercise - The Daily Caller, July 1, 2010
- Gulf women hide weight under gowns - Emirates 24/7, January 12, 2011
- Obesity kills 20,000 people a year in Saudi - Emirates 24/7, February 23, 2011
- Nadim Kawach - Blood pressure and obesity epidemic in Saudi - Emirates 24/7, May 2, 2011
- "Dozens hospitalized in Qatar after overeating during Ramadan", Al Arabiya, July 11, 2013, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/special-reports/ramadan-2013/2013/07/11/Dozens-hospitalized-in-Qatar-after-overeating-during-Ramadan-.html.
- Pamela Fayerman - Muslims most opposed to organ donation: Survey - Vancouver Sun, August 18, 2010
- The twelve shari'ah states are Zamfara, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto and Yobe. Borno, Gombe and Yobe have not yet begun to apply their shari'ah Penal Codes.
- "Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present", Leiden University Press, pp. 575 (25) & 603 (53) (archived), http://www.lup.nl/do.php?a=process_visitor_download&editorial_id=1562.
- Andrew Bomford, "Nigeria's struggle to beat polio", BBC News, March 31, 2006 (archived), http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4862012.stm.
- 2,000 minorities girls converted to Islam forcibly: report - Daily Times, September 5, 2012
- "Poliomyelitis", World Health Organization, Fact sheet N°114, April 2013 (archived), http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/.
- "Investing in the Children of the Islamic World", Unicef, Factsheet, November 2005 (archived), http://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/files/FactsheetInvesting.pdf.
- Faith Barker, "Obesity: Gulf states world ‘heavyweight’ contenders", Al Arabiya, July 24, 2013 (archived), http://english.alarabiya.net/en/life-style/2013/07/24/Obesity-Gulf-states-world-heavyweight-contenders-.html.
- "Muslims in the EU: Cities Report Germany", Open Society Institute EU Monitoring and Advocacy Program, p. 36, 2007 (archived), http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/museucitiesger_20080101_0.pdf.
- Smoking: Lebanon Among Highest Number of Smokers - ANSAmed, October 20, 2009
- Qatar: surge in diabetes/obesity, unhealthy Arab habits - ANSAmed, March 13, 2012
- Muslims report worst health - Office for National Statistics, October 11, 2004
- Ami Sedghi, "2011 census data - religion", Guardian, August 29, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/may/16/uk-census-religion-age-ethnicity-country-of-birth.
- Justin Rowlatt, "The risks of cousin marriage", BBC News, November 2005 (archived), http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4442010.stm.
- Jodie Reed, "Young Muslims in the UK: Education and Integration", Institute for Public Policy Research, December 2005
- Mahmoud Assamiee - Ninety four percent of Yemeni children vulnerable to violence - Yemen Times, Issue: (1206), Volume 16, November 10-12, 2008