Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
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According to the traditional Islamic sources, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (صلح الحديبية) (also called Sulah-e-Hudaibiya in Persian) was a ten-year truce between Prophet Muhammad and the Pagan Meccans in March 628, who at the time were in control of the Ka'aba.
It was concluded when Muhammad and 1,400 Muslims attempted to enter Mecca in order to make a lesser pilgrimage (umrah) and were met outside the city. Two years later, Muhammad would return with 10,000 men and conquer Mecca.
The treaty is mentioned in an important early Islamic source, the letters of 'Urwa b. Zubayr (d. 713 CE). These have been translated in full in Muhammad and the Empires of Faith by Professor Sean Anthony. 'Urwa's fourth letter details the treaty of Hudaybiya between the Medinans and Meccans in 928 CE, the topic of Quran 60:10:12-1. The fifth letter details the fairly bloodless conquest of Mecca enabled by a Meccan violation of the treaty after they had sent arms to an allied clan who were fighting another clan allied to Muhammad.
The treaty is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari 3:50:891. After the treaty, a new Muslim convert called Abu Basir sought refuge with Muhammad in Medina, but in accordance with the treaty Muhammad turned him over to the Meccans. As they escorted Abu Basir back on the way to Medina they attacked him and he escaped. Over time other converts joined Abu Basir on the coast and they attacked and killed Quraysh caravans. The Quraysh implored Muhammad to stop the attacks so he sent for Abu Basir and his companions.
- See Chapter four of Sean Anthony, Muhammad and the Empires of Faith: The making of the Prophet of Islam, Oakland CA: University of California, 2020