Cosmology of the Quran

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The Qur'anic universe comprises "the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them". Many verses expand on the various elements of and within this scheme, without going into great detail. Overall, a picture emerges of a flat earth (probably seven), above which are seven heavenly firmaments of uncertain shape (commonly assumed to be domed; more recently some academics have argued that the Qur'anic heavens are flat) and held up by invisible pillars. Lamps adorn the lowest of these heavens. The sun and moon circulate in them in a partly ambiguous manner. Allah resides in heaven above the creation, sitting on a throne. Academic work has situated this picture within the context of earlier Mesopotamian and Biblical cosmological concepts, while noting its own distinctive identity.


Relatively few modern academics have made dedicated attempts to piece together the cosmography of the Quran, in whole or in part. The most comprehensive such survey has been conducted by Mohammad Ali Tabatabaʾi and Saida Mirsadri of Tehran University in 2016 (which can be read for free using a monthly free article allowance).[1] They note that the new movement in the field commenced with Kevin van Bladel's work regarding individual elements of the picture in the context of the journeys of Dhu'l Qarnayn[2] and the heavenly cords (asbab) by which he traversed the world, and which, for example, Pharaoh attempted to reach by building a tower[3].

By taking the Quranic descriptions in their own right and in the context of the more ancient cosmologies of Babylon and the Bible, but without appeal to later works of tafsir or hadith, which show the influence of Hellenic (Greek) ideas acquired by the Muslims after the advent of Islam, Tabataba'i and Mirsadri argue that in various ways the Quranic cosmology has its own distinctive characteristics as well as inherited concepts, just as it interacts with the ideologies of its environment, taking some things and rejecting others. Their observations in particular are regularly cited in this article.


The Heavens and the Earth

Any accounting of the cosmology of the Qur'an must begin with the fact that the Islamic universe is extremely simple. It consists entirely of three components: "the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them" (see for example Quran 50:38), the latter of which contains such things as clouds (Quran 2:164) and birds (Quran 24:41). More often, just the heavens and earth are shorthand for the entirety of creation.

To Allah belong all things in heaven and earth: verily Allah is He (that is) free of all wants, worthy of all praise.

There is no indication of any of the other features of the universe that modern peoples take for granted. There is no concept of solar systems, of galaxies, or of “space.” There is no hint that the earth is a planet like the other planets visible from it, or that stars are other suns, just very far away. Qur'anic cosmology is primarily limited to that which is visible to the naked eye, and where it goes beyond this, invariably strays from what has been learned by scientific investigation.

The fundamental status of the “heavens and the earth” as the two main components of creation is emphasized repeatedly in the Qur'an, and it is the “separation” of the two that stands as the initial creative act of Allah.

Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?

Additionally, the Qur'an is clear that when Allah created the heavens and the earth, the earth came first.

Say (O Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve ye verily in Him Who created the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the Worlds. He placed therein firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured therein its sustenance in four Days, alike for (all) who ask; Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.
Qur'an 41:9-12


He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.

The Earth or Earths and its waters

Tabataba'i and Mirsadri note that the Qur'an "takes for granted" the flatness of the earth, a common motif among the scientifically naive people at that time, while it has "not even one hint of a spherical earth"[4] Meanwhile, certain Christian scholars of the 6th century influenced by the ancient Greeks, in dispute with their counterparts in the east, believed in its sphericity, as noted by van Bladel[5]). Damien Janos in another paper on Qur'anic cosmography has similarly noted that while the exact shape of its boundaries are not described, "what is clear is that the Qurʾān and the early Muslim tradition do not uphold the conception of a spherical earth and a spherical universe. This was a view that later prevailed in the learned circles of Muslim society as a result of the infiltration of Ptolemaic astronomy".[6]

Repeatedly, the Qur'an uses various Arabic terms that convey a flat earth, spread out like a carpet. For a much more comprehensive complilation of verses, see Islamic Views on the Shape of the Earth.

And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.
And Allah has made the earth for you as a carpet (spread out),

In fact, at one point the Qur'an even emphasizes how much flatter the earth would be were it not for the mountains that disrupt the view.

One Day We shall remove the mountains, and thou wilt see the earth as a level stretch, and We shall gather them, all together, nor shall We leave out any one of them.

As Tabataba'i and Mirsadri note[7], the mountains are heavy masses described as pegs to prevent the earth from shaking.

And He has set up on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves;
Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse, And the mountains as pegs?

One unclear facet of Islamic cosmology is the fact that the Qur'an likens the creation of the earth to the seven heavens, seven earths:

Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge..

Tabataba'i and Mirsadri observe that the plural for the earth (al ard) is never used in the Quran, though most Muslim commentators interpreted this verse to mean seven earths. Instead, they consider the verse to be likening the earth to the heavens in shape and extent (i.e. a flat expanse) as part of a broader argument in their paper that the Qur'an describes a set of seven flat, stacked heavens (see below).[8]

In the hadiths, the idea of seven earths, one above the other is already apparent.

Sa'id b. Zaid reported: I heard Allah's Apostle say: He who took a span of earth wrongly would be made to wear around his neck seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.

Janos notes that Sumerian incantations dated to the 1st millenium BCE mention both the seven heavens and seven earths (citing Wayne Horowitz, who translated them as "the heavens are seven, the earths are seven").[9] Tabataba'i and Mirsadri similarly note from Horowitz that this tradition was popular in the near east in first millenia BCE and CE, though also that only the seven heavens, but not seven earths found their way into the Hebrew literature.[10]

While contrasting the Biblical view of fresh and salty waters with the two seas of certain Qur'anic verses (fresh and salty - see for example Quran 25:53 and the quest of Moses to find their junction in Quran 18:60), they note another difference to the Biblical and Mesopotamian cosmologies, which is that the Qur'an does not mention an ocean encircling the flat disk of the earth.[11]

The two seas are very much on the surface of the earth.

He hath loosed the two seas. They meet. There is a barrier between them. They encroach not (one upon the other). Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? There cometh forth from both of them the pearl and coral-stone. His are the ships displayed upon the sea, like banners.
And [mention] when Moses said to his servant, "I will not cease [traveling] until I reach the junction of the two seas or continue for a long period."

The Seven Heavens and their Denizens

The shape of the heavens

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Illustration of Qur'anic cosmography based on the analysis of Tabataba'i and Mirsadri. Their own copyrighted illustration is available in their paper[12] The shape of the heavens in the Qur'an is uncertain.

While many classical Muslim scholars, and modern academics (due to their interpretation of other ancient cosmologies) tend to assume that the Qur'anic heavens are domed, Tabataba'i and Mirsadri observe that there is no indication in the Qur'an that they touch the earth's boundaries. The sun and moon are placed in the heavens (Quran 71:16 and Quran 78:13), the lowest of which are adorned with lamps Quran 41:12. Janos discusses verses Quran 21:30 and Quran 36:40 in which the sun and moon (as well as night and day) move in a "falak" (an ambiguous term that may have meant a circuitous course/sphere/hemisphere - see Geocentrism and the Quran), but notes that this was not considered semantically identical with the samawat, or heavens, and they were not necessarily conceived as having the same shape.[13]

It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.
So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command.

The following is a summary of the arguments Tabataba'i and Mirsadri employ to argue that the Qur'anic heavens are flat:[14]

  • They interpret Quran 51:47 ("We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof).") to mean that the heavens are continually expanded, which favours a flat expanse rather than a dome (it could be added in that case that the next verse about spreading the earth, with the same grammatical form, too fits this view). They also consider that verses mentioning invisible pillars (see below) favour a flat, roof like firmament.
  • Verses in which the seven heavens are likened to the earth (their interpretation of Quran 67:12 mentioned above), including in terms of their width e.g. Quran 57:21 "a Garden whereof the breadth is as the breadth of the heavens and the earth".
  • These heavens are arranged in layers (Quran 67:3, Quran 71:15), which more obviously suggests flatness, and this word tibiqan is similar to the Babylonian tubuqati, suggesting that seven superimposed flat heavens is a belief they have in common.
  • While interest in the heavens (as opposed to their contents) is largely absent from pre-Islamic poetry, the poems of Umayya Ibn Abi Salt likened the heavens to seven floors one above another, and liken the carpet shaped earth to the uplifted heaven.
  • Despite the obvious potential use of tents as an analogy for the heavens, the Qur'an does not do so. Mountains act as pegs to stabilise the earth rather than hold down a heavenly tent canopy.
  • The notion of a flat sky was common in ancient Mesopotamia and the near east (as also noted by Janos, citing Horowitz[15]) though some scholars instead say that the universal belief of the scientifically naive peoples of the world was that it was dome shaped. Those who suppose that the pre-Islamic Arabs had a dome shaped conception due to their tent dwellings ignore the evidence that Mecca was an urban environment with flat roofs.
  • They argue that the Qur'an's ideological antipathy to the Bedouins would have extended to their use of tents for pagan practices, and for this reason may have rejected any possible existing analogies with the heavens.

They note that Janos too favours a flat heavens interpretation. For him, it was enough that the Qur'anic firmament is likened to a binaa (structure) or saqf (roof) (Quran 2:22, Quran 21:32, Quran 40:64); They note that the word saqf originally seems to have referred to flat roofs, including in the Qur'an Quran 16:26, Quran 43:33; and arranged in layers as mentioned above - they agree with him on the strength of this latter point, though he is also open to the dome-shaped view based on tafsir sources rather than any internal evidence, while van Bladel relies mainly on pre-Qur'anic sources for his discussion of whether the Qur'anic heavens are a dome, tent or roof.[3]

Further evidence that they do not mention is found in Quran 21:104 and Quran 39:67, which state that the heavens will be rolled up/folded up come the day of judgement.

The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll.
No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment the whole of the earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him! High is He above the Partners they attribute to Him!

On the other hand, the moon, and probably the sun, are within the seven heavens according to Quran 71:15-16, which may lend support to the assumption shared by many classical scholars that the heavens are domed, given that these celestial bodies, as well as the night and day, are said to float in a falak (see above). This verse is mentioned by Tabataba'i and Mirsadri without comment on the potential difficulty.[16] In van Bladel's analysis of the Qur'anic cosmography, the sky has gates[3], which perhaps offers a solution (in the Syriac Alexander legend, the sun passes through gates, but in a dome rather than flat sky[2]).

See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another, And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp?

Solidity of the firmaments, supported by invisible pillars

Tabataba'i and Mirsadri notice that, as with other ancient cosmologies, the Qur'anic sky/heaven is a solid object.[17] Unlike with the heavenly pillars in the Bible, the Qur'anic heavens are raised up by invisible pillars (see also Quran 31:10)[18]

It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you [can] see; [...]

They note that various verses describe the heavens as a structure or edifice with no fissures, though fragments of it may fall on the earth.

Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts?

And the fact that the sky/heaven is solid is shown by the concept of pieces falling and potentially injuring residents of the earth.

See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah (in repentance).

These heavens are described as strong.

And We have built above you seven strong (heavens)

In fact, they are so substantial that it is even conceivable to climb up onto them using a ladder.

If their spurning is hard on thy mind, yet if thou wert able to seek a tunnel in the ground or a ladder to the skies and bring them a sign,- (what good?).

It is a guarded roof (presumably a reference to shooting stars chasing devils in other verses):

And We made the sky a protected ceiling, but they, from its signs, are turning away.

To further expound on the nature of the seven heavens, the hadith are helpful. Here we learn the distances between each heaven, as well as what is on the other side of the furthermost.

Narrated Al-Abbas ibn AbdulMuttalib: I was sitting in al-Batha with a company among whom the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was sitting, when a cloud passed above them. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) looked at it and said: What do you call this?

They said: Sahab.

He said: And muzn? They said: And muzn. He said: And anan? They said: And anan. AbuDawud said: I am not quite confident about the word anan. He asked: Do you know the distance between Heaven and Earth? They replied: We do not know. He then said: The distance between them is seventy-one, seventy-two, or seventy-three years. The heaven which is above it is at a similar distance (going on till he counted seven heavens). Above the seventh heaven there is a sea, the distance between whose surface and bottom is like that between one heaven and the next. Above that there are eight mountain goats the distance between whose hoofs and haunches is like the distance between one heaven and the next. Then Allah, the Blessed and the Exalted, is above that.

Ignoring the giant mountain goats which are never mentioned in the Qur'an itself, the outermost heaven lies beneath a sea that is as deep as the distances between adjacent heavens. That Allah’s “throne” is above such waters is mentioned in the Qur'an as well as the hadith.

He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was over the waters - that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, "Ye shall indeed be raised up after death", the Unbelievers would be sure to say, "This is nothing but obvious sorcery!"

There are however no mentions of galaxies, quasars, galaxy clusters or empty space. Simply water, a throne, and Allah himself.

Additional details concerning the individual heavens are found in the accounts of Muhammad’s “night journey.” Rather than quoting at length, readers are referred to Sahih Bukhari 9:93:68 for the long version. But here are the key points.

Each of the seven heavens is populated by multiple angels and a few other folks as well. These heavens are entered through doors in the solid domes, each with an angelic guard and each populated by a resident prophet. For example, immediately above the dome of the first heaven is where Muhammad met Adam, and discovered (in the absence of true geographic knowledge) the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The second heaven is the home of the Prophet Idris. Aaron is in the fourth heaven, Abraham the sixth, and Moses the seventh.

The Stars, the Sun, and the Moon

The stars are inside the closest heaven, as the Qur'an is quite explicit on this point.

We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars.
So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.

The sun and moon are a bit more ambiguous, as all we know is that they are in the heavens, and not explicitly inside the lowest of them.

See ye not how Allah hath created seven heavens in harmony, And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?
Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.

These two lights, as well as the night and day float in a circuitous course/sphere/hemisphere (a falak).

It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course.
It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).

And at the end of their daily paths across the sky, the sun (and presumably also the moon and stars) pass through the earth’s flat surface near the far Western edge using openings filled with water.

Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water: Near it he found a People: We said: "O Zul-qarnain! (thou hast authority,) either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness."

Once out of view of the humans that populate the top of the earthly disc, their motion stops, and they rest for the night in particular resting places.

And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise.

At some point during the night, however (and here again we call to the hadith for details) the sun must negotiate its return the next day with a direct appeal for Allah’s permission.

Narrated Abu Dhar: The Prophet asked me at sunset, "Do you know where the sun goes (at the time of sunset)?" I replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He said, "It goes (i.e. travels) till it prostrates Itself underneath the Throne and takes the permission to rise again, and it is permitted and then (a time will come when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted, and it will ask permission to go on its course but it will not be permitted, but it will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west.

And that is the interpretation of the Statement of Allah:

And the sun Runs its fixed course For a term (decreed). that is The Decree of (Allah) The Exalted in Might, The All-Knowing.

With permission to rise received, the sun passes back through the flat earth near its Eastern edge to commence the next day. While no “muddy pools” are specifically mentioned for the sunrise, the description of people living nearby the exit point mirrors the description of the place where the sun set.

Until, when he came to the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had provided no covering protection against the sun.

Eclipses of the Sun or Moon

The Qur'an demonstrates no understanding whatsoever of eclipses. Perhaps this is understandable. The hadith claim that Muhammad only experienced one solar eclipse during his lifetime, an experience which frightened him into a spectacular act of piety. But the Qur'an only makes a single reference to eclipses, and that is a lunar eclipse that will take place at the end of the world.

In fact, the Qur'an actually makes a statement that would conceivably make eclipses impossible.

It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).

For a solar eclipse to occur however, the sun and the moon actually must (from the perspective of the earth) "catch up" to each other in their "orbits." But since the moon itself is not visible at that time, the authors of the Qur'an never noticed this.

But then, when discussing the end of time the Qur'an assumes that a lunar eclipse (which can only occur when the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the earth) can occur at the same time that the sun and moon finally do “catch up” to each other.

He asketh: “When will be this Day of Resurrection?”
But when sight is confounded
And the moon is eclipsed
And sun and moon are united,
Qur'an 75:6-9

The “uniting” of the sun and the moon not only demonstrate a singular instance when they do “catch up” with each other, but suggests that its author assumed the common perception that the sun and moon are of comparable size and distance.

The Stars, Planets and Meteors

It is not obvious from the translations of the Qur'an that the authors of the Qur'an actually distinguished between stars and planets, as the same word is often translated to mean either. But as ancient peoples generally knew that planets were different from ordinary stars (they moved) it is a safe assumption that the earliest Muslims were equally aware.

But the mistaken (if understandable) belief that stars are very small nearby objects is not merely reflected in the placement of them inside the nearest heaven. As with most other ancient people, the authors of the Qur'an believed that meteors literally were “falling stars.” Verse 67:5 tells us they are weapons against devils and jinn.

And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.

This appears to be part of the protective role of the heavens.

And we have sought [to reach] the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames. And we used to sit therein in positions for hearing, but whoever listens now will find a burning flame lying in wait for him.

The Throne of Allah

Tabataba'i and Mirsadri note that Allah seems to reside in the Qur'anic heaven, while his footstool (kursi) extends over the heavens and earth and his throne (arshi) is carried by angels (Quran 39:75 and Quran 40:7). This is very much similar to the Judeo-Christian view.[19]

Have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven that He will not cause the earth to swallow you when lo! it is convulsed? Or have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven that He will not let loose on you a hurricane? But ye shall know the manner of My warning.
[...] His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth [...]
Those who bear the Throne, and all who are round about it, hymn the praises of their Lord [...]

Where are Paradise and Hell?

Tabataba'i and Mirsadri observe that for the Qur'an, there is almost no reference to what is beneath the earth, except as no more than a geographic location. There is no concept of an underworld, unlike Mesopotamian mythologies, as well as those of Egypt and Greece.[20]

Later Islamic cosmology takes a perfectly prosaic position in terms of Paradise and Hell, and places them firmly within the cosmos that consists of the heavens and the earth. This is discussed with many narrations in an article on the website.[21] The description of Muhammad’s “night journey” shows each of the seven heavens already populated with the departed prophets in Paradise. This is consistent with the Qur'anic description of the size of Paradise.

Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,-
Be ye foremost (in seeking) Forgiveness from your Lord, and a Garden (of Bliss), the width whereof is as the width of heaven and earth, prepared for those who believe in Allah and His messengers: that is the Grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom he pleases: and Allah is the Lord of Grace abounding.

If the heavens (to include the seventh and largest) are already populated with denizens of Paradise, the width of Paradise would be precisely that of heaven and earth.

And since Paradise is on the other side of the first heaven, it might seem reasonable that Hell is at the level of the lowest earth, as appears in hadith. This is consistent with Qur'anic descriptions of hell as being a completely enclosed place.

For them there is Hell, as a couch (below) and folds and folds of covering above: such is Our requital of those who do wrong.
Among them is (many) a man who says: "Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial." Have they not fallen into trial already? and indeed Hell surrounds the Unbelievers (on all sides).

The direction of hell on the day of judgement or from the perspective of those in paradise at least, when it is mentioned, is invariably “down.”

That Day shall they be thrust down to the Fire of Hell, irresistibly.

And in yet another reference, an observer is directed to “look down” in order to witness a denizen of hell.

(A voice) said: "Would ye like to look down?" He looked down and saw him in the midst of the Fire.
Qur'an 37:54-55

And so, we have the Islamic Universe in completion.

See Also


  • A version of this page is also available in the following languages: Uzbek. For additional languages, see the sidebar on the left.
  1. Tabatabaʾi, Mohammad A.; Mirsadri, Saida, "The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself", Arabica 63 (3/4): 201-234, 2016,  also available on
  2. 2.0 2.1 Van Bladel, Kevin, “The Alexander legend in the Qur‘an 18:83-102″, In The Qur’ān in Its Historical Context, Ed. Gabriel Said Reynolds, New York: Routledge, 2007
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 van Bladel, Kevin, "Heavenly cords and prophetic authority in the Qur’an and its Late Antique context", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 70 (2): 223-246, 2007, 
  4. Mohammad Ali Tabatabaʾi and Saida Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself p. 211
  5. Van Bladel, Kevin, Heavenly cords and prophetic authority in the Qur’an and its Late Antique context pp. 224-226
  6. Janos, Damien, "Qurʾānic cosmography in its historical perspective: some notes on the formation of a religious wordview", Religion 42 (2): 215-231, 2012  See pp. 217-218
  7. Tabataba'i and Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself p. 211
  8. Ibid. pp. 211 and 221
  9. Janos, Qurʾānic cosmography in its historical perspective p. 221
  10. Tabataba'i and Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself p. 209
  11. Ibid. pp. 213-214
  12. Tabataba'i and Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself pp. 217
  13. Janos, Qurʾānic cosmography in its historical perspective pp. 223-229
  14. Tabataba'i and Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself pp. 218-234
  15. Janos, Qurʾānic cosmography in its historical perspective pp. 216-217
  16. Tabataba'i and Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself pp. 215
  17. Ibid. p. 209
  18. Ibid. pp. 216 and 220
  19. Mohammad Ali Tabatabaʾi and Saida Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself pp. 208-210
  20. Mohammad Ali Tabatabaʾi and Saida Mirsadri, The Qurʾānic Cosmology, as an Identity in Itself p. 212
  21. Where is Paradise and where is Hell? -