L'antisémitisme en islam

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Mein Kampf is a best-seller in the Islamic World, and is often sold along-side religious literature.[1][2] Depicted above are Islamists employing the Nazi salute.

While Jews have historically suffered dhimmi status under caliphates of the past, like all religious minorities permitted to keep to their faiths under Islamic rule, in recent times the Islamic intellectual, social, and political milieu has grafted itself onto more Western notions of antisemitism, especially as expressed and ideologized by Nazi Germany. Modern Islamic antisemitism is consequently based upon a medley of Islamic scriptural citations and new-fangled Western (and especially Nazi) terminologies and tropes. In illustration of this, modern Islamic anti-Jewish polemics often feature in Arab book-fairs and bookstores alongside Arabic translations of Hitlers Mein Kumpf (sometimes translated in Arabic as "My Jihad").

According to Islamic scripture, the Jews, like Christians and other pre-Islamic religious groups considered "People of the Book", were given guidance from God (in this case the Torah, or Taurat) which, being corrupted by those amongst them entrusted with safeguarding it, lost its original message and thereafter led them astray. In addition to this general accusation of corrupted scripture, Islamic scriptures often single out Jews as being guilty of certain sins and crimes, both historically and into perpetuity. As a result of these misdeeds, Jews are reported by Islamic scriptures to have suffered certain punishments at the hand of God (being turned into pigs and apes) and at the hand of Muhammad (being executed, expelled, enslaved, and extorted by Muhammad's companions in Medina).

According to many modern, critically-oriented and source-skeptical historians of Islam, it is likely that Muhammad himself was not hostile to Medinan Jews. These historians argue that many verses in the Qur'an (which is generally considered a source contemporary to Muhammad) that directly address the fate of Muhammad's contemporary Jews are rather tolerant and that truly violent intolerance would have been unlikely to emerge from the highly cosmopolitan environment of pre-Islamic Arabia. This, they argue, contrasts sharply with the much later hadith sources which are frequently intensely vitriolic in their address of Jews and record such events as the expulsions, persecution, enslavement, and execution of Medinan Jews en masse. Historians who incline towards this line of reasoning argue that this content found in the hadith was only invented later by Muslim authorities as polemical material to employ against Jews and Judaism. Not all historians are convinced by these arguments, however, as indirect mention of the Jews in the Quran itself is often highly critical and at times straightforwardly insulting. This debate is, however, a strictly academic one, and mainstream Islamic scholars stand firmly by the narrative found in the hadith literature.

Islamic, Christian, and modern antisemitism

Any notion of Islamic antisemitism must be distinguished, through both comparison and contrast, from the form of antisemitism which has, and in a few places continues to, oppress Jews in the (usually Christian) West. The English term of antisemitism is usually used to refer to the Western hatred of Jews by Christians which, at least historically, was deeply rooted in Christian religious beliefs about the status of Jews as a people responsible for the murder (deicide) of God in the form of Jesus Christ. There was also the idea of the failure of the Jews to embrace the New Testament and the new covenant with God advanced by Christians. These two ideas, coupled with historical allusions to the religious failures of early Jews according the Old Testament and stereotypes about Jews (such as their financial cunning and exaggerated physique) which accreted in the centuries after Jesus' demise, worked together to constitute a uniquely acute and religious hatred of the Jewish people which in some ways, if not formally than practically, almost amounted to a Christian religious doctrine.

What can be termed "Islamic antisemitism" is in part similar and in part different from the legacy of antisemitism found in the West. Islamic antisemitism shares in common with its Christian counterpart a vague reliance on the religious failures of the ancient Hebrews as recorded in the Old Testament (and later the Quran) as well as on the failure of Jews to convert, en masse, to the follow-up religion (in this case Islam). Islam, however, lacks such an acute and and loaded accusation against the post-Islamic Jews as the Christian charge of deicide. Consequently, the Jews are perceived as having historically disappointed God but not as being uniquely sinful to an extent as extreme as deicide. Still, some would argue that where Islam lacks this sort of calamitous accusation against the Jews, it more than compensates in its depiction of Muhammad singling Jews out for persecution in the hadith literature. Whereas Jesus' victimhood to the Jews was the primary motivation of Christian antisemitism, Muhammad's (perhaps mythical) victimization of the Jews can be understood as the primary motivation of Islamic antisemitism.

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The Arabic edition of Mein Kampf among recommended books in at the Virgin Megastore located in Qatar. The store later told media that it had recommended the book to "satisfy the demand" of its "consumers".[3]

More important today than the historical origins and constitution of either form of antisemitism, however, is how they responded to the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. In the West, the manifestation and consequences of Nazi Ideology threw the incompatibility of Christian antisemitism and Enlightenment values into excruciating sharp relief. Western nations, faced with this fork in the road, decided to marshal popular spirit against Nazi ideology in the name of human rights. By contrast, much of the Muslim world, already at loggerheads with the West due to recent and ongoing struggles against colonialism, positioned itself against the Nazis enemies and thus behind the Nazis. Henceforth, what were once somewhat vaguer notions of anti-Jewish sentiment based largely in Islamic scripture now incorporated much of the pseudo-scientific and rationalized nature of German antisemitism. The expression of Islamic antisemitism in the modern world, while still couched in religious terminology and religiously justified as fundamentally Islamic, often employs the symbolic and practical methods of the Nazis. In summary, the phenomenon of Nazi Germany placed both Western and Islamic antisemitism at a cross roads. And while the West decided at this point in history to overcome its past and begin a secular crusade against antisemitism and other forms of discrimination (with the Civil Rights Movement), the Islamic world found new fuel for antisemitism (in the form of translating Nazi propaganda into Arabic and incorporating the material into textbooks) that would enable it to take its antisemitism to new and previously unknown heights.

Defining Semites

The Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians are considered as comprising the Semitic people. However, in the context of "Anti-Semitism", it is commonly understood to refer to people who identify as Jewish. Indeed, the Princeton dictionary explicitly defines antisemitism as an "intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people".[4] And Merriam-Webster defines it as "hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group".[5]

Recent scientific studies have also shown that Jews, unlike Muslims or Christians, are reliably identifiable as an ethnic group with unique genes, many of whom also share a common language and culture.[6] As a result, the Jewish people are increasingly recognized as not only a distinct religious group, but also an ethnic minority.

Islamic scripture and antisemitism

The Qur'an

The Qur'an contains many charges and criticisms of the Jewish people which are both general and highly specific in nature. Some of the more general invectives are made against People of the Book (those who are said to have received and corrupted scripture from Allah in the past) as a group, and thus cannot be considered as attacks on Jews alone.

Invective specific to Jews

Jews must believe in the Qur'an or else Allah will distort their faces and take away their fame so that they become unrecognizable, turning them backwards, or curse them.

O ye People of the Book!* believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out.

The Jews knowing full well that Isa was a Messenger of Allah, attempted to kill him in defiance of their deity.

That they rejected Faith; that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge; That they said (in boast), "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah";- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:- Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise;- And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them;-
Qur'an 4:156-159

Because the Jews are sinful, Allah made more rules for them than for anyone else, and they have hindered many from the way of Allah.

For the iniquity of the Jews We made unlawful for them certain (foods) good and wholesome which had been lawful for them;- in that they hindered many from Allah's Way;-

Jews will listen to any lie.

O Messenger! let not those grieve thee, who race each other into unbelief: (whether it be) among those who say "We believe" with their lips but whose hearts have no faith; or it be among the Jews,- men who will listen to any lie,- will listen even to others who have never so much as come to thee. They change the words from their (right) times and places: they say, "If ye are given this, take it, but if not, beware!" If any one's trial is intended by Allah, thou hast no authority in the least for him against Allah. For such - it is not Allah's will to purify their hearts. For them there is disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter a heavy punishment.

The Jews were stamped with humiliation and wretchedness.

And when ye said: O Moses! We are weary of one kind of food; so call upon thy Lord for us that He bring forth for us of that which the earth groweth - of its herbs and its cucumbers and its corn and its lentils and its onions. He said: Would ye exchange that which is higher for that which is lower? Go down to settled country, thus ye shall get that which ye demand. And humiliation and wretchedness were stamped upon them and they were visited with wrath from Allah. That was because they disbelieved in Allah's revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully. That was for their disobedience and transgression.

Muslims must not take the Jews as friends and protectors or else Allah will not guide them.

O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust.

Jews are the most hateful towards Muslims.

Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

The Jews say Ezra is the son of Allah which makes them perverse, and even Allah fights against them.

And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they!

Allah turned some Jews into apes and pigs for breaking the Sabbath.

And well ye knew those amongst you [Children of Israel] who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."

Since the Jews have said that Allah's hand is tied up, their hands will be tied up and they will be cursed. They are obstinant, rebellious, and blasphemous, and Allah has cursed them with enmity and hatred until Judgment day. Allah halts their efforts of warfare, and they are always causing mischief.

The Jews say: "Allah's hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief.

According to some Islamic commentators, Satan (Iblis) too is cursed by Allah in the same way the Jews are cursed. Allah has likewise granted respite to Satan until the Day of Judgment, and, it is thus argued, there is no difference between Satan and Jews in this respect, because both are accursed.

Invective not specific to Jews but including them

Jews are only satisfied if you follow Judaism.

Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion. Say: "The Guidance of Allah,-that is the (only) Guidance." Wert thou to follow their desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither Protector nor helper against Allah.

Most of the Jews are faithless, perverted transgressors.

Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah. If only the People of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors.

Muslims must fight the Jews, until they submit in shame and pay the Jizyah.

Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute [Jizya] readily, being brought low.

The Hadith

Muhammad is central to Islam. As the uswa hasana (perfect example), every action on his part (as recorded in the hadith) is foundational to the laws and doctrine of Islam. Emulating Muhammad's Sunnah, or "way", is considered the most pious of endeavors. Many if not most of the following hadiths, while considered authentic and canonical to orthodox Islam, have been cast into doubt by source-critical historians who argue that these traditions may have emerged when latter Muslims sought justification for their hatred of Jews by projecting their views back to Muhammad in the form of mythical anecdotes from his life.

Muhammad's dying words included a curse on Jews for building their place of worship at their prophets' graves.

Narrated 'Aisha and 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: When the last moment of the life of Allah's Apostle came he started putting his 'Khamisa' on his face and when he felt hot and short of breath he took it off his face and said, "May Allah curse the Jews and Christians for they built the places of worship at the graves of their Prophets." The Prophet was warning (Muslims) of what those had done.

Muhammad said that during his "Night Journey" (al-Isra wal-Miraj) to heaven on the mythical flying Buraq, Moses wept because there would be more Muslims in heaven than Jews.

When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses. Gabriel said (to me),' This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, 'You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.' When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him, 'What makes you weep?' Moses said, 'I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.'

Jews earn Allah's anger.

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Say Amen' when the Imam says "Ghair-il-maghdubi 'alaihim wala-ddal-lin; not the path of those who earn Your Anger (such as Jews) nor of those who go astray (such as Christians); all the past sins of the person whose saying (of Amin) coincides with that of the angels, will be forgiven.

Muslims must not greet Jews before the Jews greet them, and they should force Jews to go to the narrowest part of the road.

The latter teaching, among other things, became enshrined as a part of Shariah laws regulating the social presence of dhimmis.

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it.

The Final Hour will not come until Muslims slaughter Jews, and even the rocks and trees will betray the Jews hiding behind them, save one tree from the land of Israel.

This event, considered the ultimate victory of Islam, is often recalled in sermons preceding weekly Friday Islamic prayers.

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.

Muslims will be spared hell-fire by Allah on the Day of Resurrection by making Jews take their place and be thrown into hell.

Abu Musa' reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire.

Islamic scholars and antisemitism

Early Islamic scholars

The views expressed in early Islamic writings and authoritative Qur'anic commentaries (tafsirs) demonstrate that Islamic hatred of Jews is not an entirely modern phenomenon. Instead, a strong hatred of the Jewish people has been a part of the Islamic scholarly tradition from the earliest times. The changes that have taken place are more a matter of degree than species. While Islamic antisemitism is more frequent and reliant on pseudoscience than it was in the past, the religious justification for it has effectively stayed the same.

Our people [the Muslims] observing thus the occupations of the Jews and the Christians concluded that the religion of the Jews must compare unfavorably as do their professions, and that their unbelief must be the foulest of all, since they are the filthiest of all nations. Why the Christians, ugly as they are, are physically less repulsive than the Jews may be explained by the fact that the Jews, by not intermarrying, have intensified the offensiveness of their features. Exotic elements have not mingled with them; neither have males of alien races had intercourse with their women, nor have their men cohabited with females of a foreign stock. The Jewish race therefore has been denied high mental qualities, sound physique, and superior lactation. The same results obtain when horses, camels, donkeys, and pigeons are inbred.[7]
al-Jahiz (781 - 869 AD)
In my opinion, [the Christians] are not like the Jews who always scheme in order to murder the emissaries and the prophets, and who oppose God in his positive and negative commandments, and who corrupt His scripture which He revealed in His books.[8]
al-Tabari (838 - 923 AD), Tafsīr on 5:82
“And, that they should not enter the pool while a Muslim is bathing at the public baths. ...It is also incumbent upon Muslims that they should not accept from them victuals with which they had come into contact, such as distillates, which cannot be purified. If something can be purified, such as clothes, if they are dry, they can be accepted, they are clean. But if they had come into contact with those clothes in moisture they should be rinsed with water after being obtained. ...It would also be better if the ruler of the Muslims would establish that all infidels could not move out of their homes on days when it rains or snows because they would make Muslims impure.”
Muhammad Baqir Majlesi (1616 – 1698 AD), Lightning Bolts Against the Jews

Contemporary Islamic scholars

When you look at the many anti-Semitic sermons and articles by Muslim Scholars, the inspiration behind them is hard to miss. Without the anti-Semitic sentiments found within Islamic scripture and classical Muslim thinking, these attacks on the Jewish race would lose much of their meaning and impact among the Muslim listeners.

History witnessed repeated violations by the Jews of their treaties with the Muslim state in Madinah, as also their scheming against the Muslims. These violations led to the encounters with the Jewish tribes of Qaynuqa, al-Nadir and Qurayzah, and also the Battle of Khaybar. Their efforts to bring together all the forces hostile to Islam in an unholy affiance, with the aim of exterminating Islam altogether, are well known.

They have continued to scheme against Islam and the Muslim community ever since. They were instrumental in the chaotic events that led to the assassination of the third rightly-guided Caliph. 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and to the emergence of division in the Muslim community. They were the main culprits in the conflict that took place between 'Ali and Mu 'awiyah. They led the way in the fabrication of false statements attributed to the Prophet, historical reports and baseless interpretations of Qur'anic statements. They also paved the way to the victory of the Tartars and their conquest of Baghdad and the fall of the Islamic Caliphate.

In modern history, the Jews have been behind every calamity that has befallen the Muslim communities everywhere. They give active support to every attempt to crush the modem Islamic revival and extend their protection to every regime that suppresses such a revival.[9]
Sayyid Qutb (D. 1966), In the Shade of the Qur'an, vol. 8: Surah 9
"Throughout history, Allah has imposed upon the [Jews] people who would punish them for their corruption. The last punishment was carried out by Hitler. By means of all the things he did to them – even though they exaggerated this issue – he managed to put them in their place. This was divine punishment for them. Allah willing, the next time will be at the hand of the believers"[10]
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, January 30, 2009
"Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers — oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish, Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one."[11]
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, January 9, 2009
Read history and you will understand that the Jews of yesterday are the evil fathers of the Jews of today, who are evil offspring, infidels, distorters of [others'] words, calf-worshippers, prophet-murderers, prophecy-deniers... the scum of the human race whom Allah cursed and turned into apes and pigs...[12]
Leading imam of the Grand mosque in Mecca, Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais, April 19, 2002
"There are Hadiths regarding our struggle against the Jews. And it is given: ‘The day of resurrection will not arrive until the Moslems make war against the Jews and kill them, and until a Jew hiding behind a rock and tree, and the rock and tree will say: 'Oh Moslem, oh servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him!' This Hadith clarifies to us the characteristics of the campaign between us and the Jews. The tree and the rock do not say 'Oh, Palestinian,' 'Oh Arab,' or 'Oh resident of the Middle East.' Rather they say: 'Oh, Moslem, Servant of Allah.'"[13]
Palestinian TV, March 30, 2001
"We the Palestinian nation, our fate from Allah is to be the vanguard in the war against the Jews until the resurrection of the dead, as the prophet Mohammed said: 'The resurrection of the dead will not arrive until you will fight the Jews and kill them...' We the Palestinians are the vanguard in this undertaking and in this campaign, whether or not we want this..."[13]
Palestinian TV, July 28, 2000
"My dear brothers, so continues the struggle between the Moslems and the Jews from the past, both near and far, in the present and in the future. And in this matter the word of Allah will be fulfilled: 'There will not be found [anyone] more hostile to the believers than the Jews and the idolaters."[13]
Palestinian TV, April 13, 2001, quoting the Koran - Sura 5,84
"The battle with the Jews will surely come... the decisive Moslem victory is coming without a doubt, and the prophet spoke about in more than one Hadith. And the day of resurrection will not come without the victory of the believers [the Moslems] over the descendents of the monkeys and pigs [the Jews] and with their annihilation."[13]
Official P.A. newspaper, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, May 18, 2001
"...The Jews are used to deceit... They fake the facts and changed the laws of Allah... The Torah was brought down with contained guidance toward the path of righteousness and light, just as every book which Allah brought down... [The Jews] switched the law of Allah and by this rebelled on His ruling and religion and way, and therefore they merit to be heretics and to be banished from the Allah's mercy... They faked the words of Allah and changed their religion and laws and they are the wicked. And whomever does not rule according to what Allah brought down, whomever rebelled against this... is in a rebellion against Allah, and is a descendant of Abelis [ghost], the descendant of the Satans, and worthy of receiving the punishment of the sinners..."[13]
Palestinian TV, February 16, 1999
"Lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews. The best evidence that Jews go back on their word is their denial of the principles on which they signed in the Oslo Accords and the Madrid and Sharon agreements. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs."[14]
Al-Akhbar Egyptian paper, May 5, 2001
"We [Muslims] are actually very strong, 1.3 billion people cannot be simply wiped out. The Nazis killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million [during the Holocaust]. But today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them. They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong so they may enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have now gained control of the most powerful countries. And they, this tiny community, have become a world power."[15]
Malaysian Prime Minister's speech to the Tenth Islamic Summit Conference in Putrajaya, October 16, 2003
"...Their Bible [of the Jews] today has no light and no teachings. Their Bible today is just a bunch of notes that were written down by people who lie about God, his prophets and his Bible... Those who do these kinds of things are the descendants of Abelis, meaning the descendants of the satans... They fabricated a Jewish history book full of promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob that He will give them the land of Palestine..."[13]
Palestinian TV, November 3, 1998
"We want [Obama] to consider the reasons for the invasion of Afghanistan. Are 19 young men from the Islamic world really capable of destroying America? Can they really cause all that ruin there? Can such a thing happen, Mr. Hussein, President of America?....We call upon him to examine publications issued in America, casting doubt on whether it was the Arabs and Muslims who attacked the two Manhattan buildings. Some of these publications went as far as to state: 'No Plane Hit the Pentagon....We Want President Hussein To Be Fair And To Study The 9/11 Files....We Consider This To Be A Jewish Conspiracy"[16]
Sheikh Abd Al-Jalil Al-Karouri: Sudanese Friday TV Sermon - June 5, 2009
"Blessed is he who fights jihad in the name of Allah, blessed is he who [goes on] raids in the name of Allah, blessed is he who dons a vest of explosives on himself or on his children and goes in to the depth of the Jews and says: ‘Allahu Akbar, blessed be Allah.' Like the collapse of the building upon the heads of the Jews in their sinful dance-hall, I ask of Allah that we see the Knesset collapsing on the heads of the Jews."
Palestinian TV, June 8, 2001
"The Jews are the Jews. There never was among them a supporter of peace. They are all liars... the true criminals, the Jewish terrorists, that slaughtered our children, that turned our wives into widows and our children into orphans, and desecrated our holy places. They are terrorists. Therefore it is necessary to slaughter them and murder them, according to the words of Allah... it is forbidden to have mercy in your hearts for the Jews in any place and in any land. Make war on them anyplace that you find yourself. Any place that you encounter them -- kill them. Kill the Jews and those among the Americans that are like them... Have no mercy on the Jews, murder them everywhere..."[13]
Palestinian TV, October 13, 2000
"Arab and Moslem rulers! The weaponry that will not be used against the enemies of Allah will rust and you will use them against one another, as happens periodically. Aim your arrows once and make war, as they war against you. Why this fear of the State [of Israel] that is surrounded by Arabs and Moslems? Why this fear? Because you do not fear Allah -- whoever fears Allah, all else will fear him."[13]
Palestinian TV, March 30, 2001
"The Arab rulers and the Moslems, and our people everywhere. If we don't support Allah, He will replace us with other men... The courageous over the infidels, make war for Allah and are not afraid... This is the depiction of the army of Allah that will come at Allah's decree, from here or from there, to liberate these lands from the defilement of the Jews, for Allah was angry with them in his book and called them once 'monkeys,' once 'swine,' and once 'donkeys.'"[13]
Palestinian TV, March 30, 2001
"Oh, our Arab brethren... Oh, our Moslem brethren... Don't leave the Palestinians alone in war against the Jews... Even if it has been decreed upon us to be the vanguard... Jerusalem, Palestine and Al Aksa, the land that Allah blessed and its surrounding areas will remain at the center of the struggle between truth and falsehood, between the Jews and the non-Jews on this sacred land, regardless of how many agreements are signed, regardless of how many treaties and covenants are ratified. For the truth is in the Koran, as verified by the words of the prophet Mohammed, that the decisive battle will be in Jerusalem and its environs: 'The resurrection of the dead will not occur until you make war on the Jews...'"[13]
Palestinian TV, August 11, 2000
"All the members of this nation must take part in this struggle against the enemies of Allah, so that through us the saying of Allah will be fulfilled: 'You will not find people more hostile than are the Jews.'"[13]
Palestinian TV, April 13, 2001
"Palestine... causes the Jews to lose sleep, causes the enemies of Allah throughout the land to lose sleep... It is a bleeding wound, and it will continue to bleed forever and ever... Jerusalem is a symbol... to the Moslems and to their war of Jihad forever and ever."[13]
Palestinian TV, August 11, 2000
"The victory is coming, the victory is coming, the victory is coming! Allah, show us your marvels against the Jews! Show them a black day, like the day of A'ad and Tha'mud (tribes that were defeated and destroyed). Because they boasted to us of their strength! Show us the prince against them, show them a black day! Allah, transform them into the Moslems' spoils of war! Allah, transform them into our spoils of war!”[13]
Palestinian TV, April 13, 2001
"Japanese newspapers put down my talk to me being anti-Semitic….but they pick up one sentence in which I said the Jews control the world. Well, the reaction of the world shows that they control the world. Israel is a small country. There are not many Jews in the world. But they are so arrogant they defy the whole world...many newspapers are owned by the Jews. They only see that angle and they have a powerful influence over the thinking of many people. Only their side of the picture is given now. The Muslims, we are pictured as terrorists, unreasonable people..."[17]
Malaysian Prime Minister's interview with The Bangkok Post, October 21, 2003
"The Jews for example are not merely hook-nosed, but understand money instinctively."[18]
Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir bin Muhammad's book "The Malay Dilemma"

Antisemitic literature in the Islamic world

Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler, is a modern-day best-seller in the Arab and wider Islamic world in countries including including: Egypt, Palestine,[19][20] Turkey,[2][21] and had also sold well in London areas with large Arab populations.[19] It is often sold along-side religious literature. Mein Kampf is sometimes translated as "My Jihad" in Arabic. Mein Kampf has sold as well as Dan Brown's latest novel in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where sales of the book have been reported to soar around Eid, likely due to its being bought by significant numbers as an Eid gift.[1]

Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a 19th century anti-Semitic tract that remains immensely popular in the Islamic world.[22][21] It was a forgery made in Russia for the Okhrana (secret police) and blames the Jews for the country’s ills. It was first privately printed in 1897 and was made public in 1905. Adolf Hitler later used the Protocols to help justify his attempt to exterminate Jews during World War II.[23] Its popularity has led to it being adapted as a TV mini-series broadcasted in various Islamic countries.[24]

Saudi Ministry of Education textbooks

As with homophobic writing, anti-Semitic literature in the Muslim world is not confined to bookstores. The following are extracts taken from 2010-11[25] Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies:

They are the people of the Sabbath, whose young people God turned into apes, and whose old people God turned into swine to punish them. As cited in Ibn Abbas: The apes are Jews, the keepers of the Sabbath; while the swine are the Christian infidels of the communion of Jesus.[26]
Some of the people of the Sabbath were punished by being turned into apes and swine. Some of them were made to worship the devil, and not God, through consecration, sacrifice, prayer, appeals for help, and other types of worship. Some of the Jews worship the devil. Likewise, some members of this nation worship devil, and not God.[26]

Islamic antisemitism in the modern world


Anti-Semitic incidents around the world more than doubled in 2009 compared to the previous year, and most violent attacks in Western Europe came from people of Arab or Muslim heritage.

Anti-Semitic incidents around the world more than doubled in 2009 over the previous year, posting their worst year since monitoring began two decades ago, according to a new survey.
. . .

In Europe, Britain and France led with the number of incidents, according to the report. There were 374 violent incidents against Jews recorded in Britain in 2009, compared to 112 in 2008, according to the institute. France saw 195 attacks in 2009 compared to 50 the previous year. Britain and France have the highest Jewish populations in Europe, as well as the largest Muslim populations.

Only 78 incidents of anti-Semitic violence were recorded in 1989, the year that the institute began recording such incidents. In 2009, some 41 of the incidents were armed assaults directed at Jews because of their religion; 34 incidents were arson, according to the report.[27]
A major annual study of worldwide anti-Semitic incidents points to a dramatic rise in anti-Semitism in 2009, with particularly steep jumps in Western Europe and Canada.
. . .

The year in the wake of Operation Cast Lead was the worst since monitoring of anti-Semitic manifestations began, in terms of both major anti-Semitic violence and the hostile atmosphere generated worldwide by the mass demonstrations and verbal and visual expressions against Israel and the Jews," the report said.

The report, considered an important bellwether of anti-Jewish sentiment worldwide, was released ahead of Holocaust Remembrance Day in cooperation with the European Jewish Congress (EJC).

Among its most dramatic findings was a 102 percent increase in anti-Jewish violence worldwide, from 559 incidents in 2008 to 1,129 in 2009.

In addition, there were "many more hundreds of threats, insults, graffiti signs and slogans and demonstrations featuring virulently anti-Semitic content... sometimes resulting in violence," according to the report.

A significant part of this increase took place in the UK, where violence jumped from 112 incidents in 2008 to 374 last year; in France, where the jump was from 50 to 195, and in Canada, where incidents soared from 13 to 138.

The US, which ordinarily enjoys a very low rate of anti-Jewish violence compared to the size of its Jewish community, nonetheless saw a modest rise, from 98 to 116 incidents.

In some countries, these figures are only the latest spike in a continuing trend. The British Jewish community's monitoring system counted a three-fold increase in anti-Semitic occurrences since 1999, while Canada counted a five-fold increase since 2000.

Most violent attacks in Western Europe came from people of Arab or Muslim heritage, the report found.
. . .

In 2009, however, “white” attacks [in the UK] dropped to 48% and “Asian” or “Arab” attacks jumped to 43%.

During the month of January 2009, in the midst of Operation Cast Lead, “Asian” and “Arab” attackers accounted for fully 54% of incidents, although the Muslim community numbers just 4% of the general population.[28]

Muslim Majority Nations

According to the Pew Global Attitudes Project released on August 14, 2005, high percentages of the populations of six Muslim-majority countries have negative views of Jews. To a questionnaire asking respondents to give their views of members of various religions along a spectrum from "very favorable" to "very unfavorable", 60% of Turks, 74% of Pakistanis, 76% of Indonesians, 88% of Moroccans, 99% of Lebanese Muslims and 100% of Jordanians checked either "somewhat unfavorable" or "very unfavorable" for Jews.[29]


Pew asked respondents to give their opinions of Christians, Muslims and Jews, and it found anti-Jewish sentiment to be "overwhelming" in the Muslim countries surveyed. It reached 98 percent in Jordan and 97 percent in Egypt.[30]
June, 2006


100 percent of Jordanians view Jews unfavorably

Jordan leads the Islamic world in its antipathy for Jews according to a new poll by the Pew Research Center. The poll, which surveyed 17,000 people in 17 countries, said 100 percent of Jordanians viewed Jews unfavorably. The majority of Jordanians are Palestinians, but the late King Hussein and his son and successor, King Abdullah have been known for their pro-American stances.[31]
September, 2005

In the West


In 2009, the number of anti-Semite incidents in Amsterdam doubled compared to the year before. The Jewish community feels under siege
. . .

Experience has taught him that the boys taunting him are almost always of Moroccan descent.

“Their reasoning goes something like this: Israelis are Jews, Palestinians are Arabs, so we Moroccan ‘Arabs’ in the Netherlands are going to take on Dutch Jews,” said Menno ten Brink, a rabbi for the liberal Jewish community in Amsterdam.[32]


The Flemish-language newspaper De Morgen (link only in Flemish) has a major [May 12, 2011] article about a survey of Muslim students in Brussels high schools. The professor who conducted the survey concludes that half "can be described as antisemitic which is a very high rate.’’ Five times higher, in fact, then among Flemish-speaking Belgians, who historically have been relatively anti-Jewish.

Incidentally, what was being measured here was not antagonism toward Israel but traditional anti-Jewish stereotypes. No doubt, the former attitude is even stronger.

The anti-Jewish sentiments among Muslims don't vary depending on education level or living standards. Obviously, they aren't getting it from Belgian society.

"The antisemitism is theologically inspired," says the sociologist, Professor Mark Elchardus. "There is a direct link between being Muslim and antisemitic feelings...[33]


Among adults 39 percent of Muslim Swedes have a systematically negative view of Jews compared to 5 percent among the rest

Quote from the summary of the study Antisemitiska Attityder och Föreställningar i Sverige by Henrik Bachner and Jonas Ring done by Forum för Levande Historia: The results suggest that antisemitic views and ambivalent attitudes toward Jews are more common among Muslim Swedes than among Christian Swedes and non-religious Swedes. Among adults 39 percent of Muslim Swedes have a systematically negative view of Jews compared to 5 percent among the rest.[34]
October, 2006

Jews left Sweden when hate crimes double

When she first arrived in Sweden after her rescue from a Nazi concentration camp, Judith Popinski was treated with great kindness.

She raised a family in the city of Malmo, and for the next six decades lived happily in her adopted homeland - until last year.

In 2009, a chapel serving the city's 700-strong Jewish community was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused on their way home from prayer, and "Hitler" was mockingly chanted in the streets by masked men.

"I never thought I would see this hatred again in my lifetime, not in Sweden anyway," Mrs Popinski told The Sunday Telegraph.

"This new hatred comes from Muslim immigrants. The Jewish people are afraid now."
. . .
The future looks so bleak that by one estimate, around 30 Jewish families have already left for Stockholm, England or Israel, and more are preparing to go.

With its young people planning new lives elsewhere, the remaining Jewish households, many of whom are made up of Holocaust survivors and their descendants, fear they will soon be gone altogether. Mrs Popinski, an 86-year-old widow, said she has even encountered hostility when invited to talk about the Holocaust in schools.

"Muslim schoolchildren often ignore me now when I talk about my experiences in the camps," she said. "It is because of what their parents tell them about Jews. The hatreds of the Middle East have come to Malmo. Schools in Muslim areas of the city simply won't invite Holocaust survivors to speak any more."

Hate crimes, mainly directed against Jews, doubled last year with Malmo's police recording 79 incidents and admitting that far more probably went unreported. As of yet, no direct attacks on people have been recorded but many Jews believe it is only a matter of time in the current climate.
. . .
After the war, just as liberal Sweden took in Jews who survived the Holocaust as a humanitarian act, it also took in new waves of refugees from tyranny and conflicts in the Middle East. Muslims are now estimated to make up about a fifth of Malmo's population of nearly 300,000.

"This new hatred from a group 40,000-strong is focused on a small group of Jews," Mrs Popinski said, speaking in a sitting room filled with paintings and Persian carpets.

"Some Swedish politicians are letting them do it, including the mayor. Of course the Muslims have more votes than the Jews."[35]
February, 2010
A March 29 story in The Washington Times (“Hate Crimes Force Jews Out of Malmo”) noted that of 115 bias-crimes in Sweden’s third largest city, reported in 2009, 52 were anti-Semitic, this notwithstanding that Malmo’s Jewish population numbers fewer than 700 (half of what it was two decades ago) in a general population of 280,000.

Thus, Jews represent less than .0025% of the city, but account for 45% of all hate crimes. Could that have something to do with Malmo’s 60,000 Muslims?

Malmo Rabbi Shneur Kesselman says: “In the past five years I’ve been here, I think you can count on your hand how many (anti-Semitic) incidents there have been from the extreme right. In my personal experience, it’s 99% Muslim.” Jewish resident Marcus Eilenberg, whose survivor grandparents found shelter in Malmo in 1945, says Jews there are confronting “a degree of hate that none of us – except those who survived the Holocaust – had experienced before.”[36]

United Kingdom

About 2 out of 5 British Muslims believe Jews are "a legitimate target"

Nearly two fifths (37 per cent) [of Muslims] believe that the Jewish community in Britain is a legitimate target “as part of the ongoing struggle for justice in the Middle East”. Moreover, only 52 per cent think that the state of Israel has the right to exist, with 30 per cent disagreeing, a big minority. One in six of all Muslims questioned thinks suicide bombings can sometimes be justified in Israel, though many fewer (7 per cent) say the same about Britain. This is broadly comparable to the number justifying suicide attacks in ICM and YouGov polls of British Muslims after the July 7 attacks.[37]
February, 2006
Attacks on Britain’s Jews have risen to the highest level since records began.

A study published today shows the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents has almost tripled in 10 years, with more than half the attacks last year taking place in London. The findings prompted the report’s authors to warn of a “wave of hatred” against Jews. The number of incidents increased to 594 last year, up by 31 per cent on the previous year.

Violent assaults soared to 112, up by more than a third on 2005.[38]
February, 2007

Modern revisionist perspectives and challenges thereto

Some modern and especially Western Islamic authorities make efforts to portray Muhammad in a better light vis-a-vis Jews by suggesting that he attended a Jew's funeral and forgave a Jewish woman who used to throw garbage and carrion at his doorstep.[39] Traditionally these stories are considered weak or fabricated hadiths are therefore not considered legitimate basis for doctrine by traditional and mainstream Islamic authorities[40][41]. most often these favorable anecdotes from the prophet's life are taken from hadith and sira books that are otherwise dismissed by the same modern and western authorities as unreliable, such as Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Saad and Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.[42][43]

See also

  • Antisemitism - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Antisemitism

External links

Further reading

In the news

From the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Alastair Lawson - Mein Kampf a hit on Dhaka streets - BBC News, November 27, 2009
  2. 2.0 2.1 [http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Culture/Arts/Mar/18/Hitlers-Mein-Kampf-sells-50000-copies-in-Turkey-in-three-months.ashx#axzz1mYj9kPvg&date=2012-02-16 Il y a une nouvelle version de WikiIslam en français. Pour la dernière version de cette page, vous pouvez voir le wiki en français ici Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' sells 50,000 copies in Turkey in three months] - Agence France Presse, March 18, 2005
  3. Rory Jones, Fury as Virgin Megastore recommends Hitler's Mein Kampf, The National News, December 6, 2011 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.thenationalnews.com/business/fury-as-virgin-megastore-recommends-hitler-s-mein-kampf-1.404552 
  4. Definition - Antisemitism Princeton University's WordNet
  5. Definition - Anti-Semitism Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  6. Jews' Genetics Make Them A 'Distinct Population': NYU/Yeshiva Study - The Huffington Post, June 4, 2010
  7. Andrew G. Bostom - Understanding the Islam in Islamic Antisemitism - NewEnglishReview, 2 June 2009
  8. Andrew G. Bostom - Why Islam’s Jew-Hating Hadith Matter - FrontPageMagazine, October 03, 2008
  9. Sayyid Qutb, In the Shade of the Qur'an, vol. 8: Surah 9 (Leicestershire, UK, 2003), pp. 1 15- 16, 120-23.
  10. Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi: Allah Imposed Hitler On the Jews to Punish Them – 'Allah Willing, the Next Time Will Be at the Hand of the Believers' - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 2224, February 3, 2009
  11. Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi Incites against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S., and Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks, Marks and Spencer - MEMRI TV, Video Clip No. 1979, Al-Jazeera TV (Qatar) - January 9, 2009 - 10:44
  12. Dr. Leah Kinberg - Jews In The Koran And Early Islamic Traditions - Lecture delivered in May 2003, Monash University, Melbourne
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 Itamar Marcus - Islam's War Against the Jews: Quotes from the Palestinian Authority - AISH
  14. Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media February 2001 - February 2002 - Anti Defamation League
  15. Malaysian Leader: 'Jews Rule World by Proxy' - Fox News, October 16, 2003
  16. Cleric Calls On Fellow muslim Obama To Blame 9/11 On The Jews - Live Leak
  17. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad: On the Jews - Anti Defamation League, October 27, 2003
  18. Jeff Jacoby - Rousing Muslim bigotry - The Boston Globe, October 23, 2003
  19. 19.0 19.1 Sean O'Neill and John Steele - Mein Kampf for sale, in Arabic - The Telegraph, March 19, 2002
  20. Hitler's Mein Kampf In East Jerusalem And PA Territories - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 48, October 1, 1999
  21. 21.0 21.1 Antisemitism in the Turkish Media - MEMRI - April 28, 2005
  22. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion - MEMRI TV
  23. Robert T. Carroll - Protocols of the Elders of Zion - The Skeptic's Dictionary
  24. Protocols Recycled - Anti-Defamation League, January 9, 2004
  25. Charles Lewis - Saudis export anti-Christian and anti-Jewish textbooks across the world: report - National Post, September 28, 2011
  26. 26.0 26.1 Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance - Freedom House, May 2006, pp.24-25.
  27. Report: Anti-Semitism up - JTA, April 11, 2010
  28. Haviv Rettig Gur - Anti-Semitic violence doubled in 2009 - The Jerusalem Post, April 12, 2010
  29. Islam and antisemitism - Wikipedia, accessed September 17, 2010
  30. MEG BORTIN - Poll Finds Discord Between the Muslim and Western Worlds - The New York Times, June 23, 2006
  31. Poll: Jordan top anti-Jew nation; Russia most pro-Christian - World Tribune, September 19, 2005
  32. Karel Berkhout - Anti-Semitism on the rise in Amsterdam - NRC, 26 January 2010
  33. Barry Rubin - Belgium: Half of All Muslim Immigrant Children Are Antisemitic - Right Side News, May 17, 2011
  34. Poll of Muslim as well as non-Muslim Swedes regarding anti-Semitism - Iceviking, October 28, 2006 (original non-translated study)
  35. Nick Meo - Jews leave Swedish city after sharp rise in anti-Semitic hate crimes - The Telegraph, February 21, 2010
  36. Don Feder - Society For Voluntary Jewish Extinction Fights Islamophobia Society For Voluntary Jewish Extinction Fights Islamophobia - GrassTopsUSA, September 20, 2010
  37. [1] - The Times Online, February 07, 2006
  38. 'Wave of hatred' warning as attacks on Jews hits record high - The Daily Mail, February 1, 2007
  39. A repetitive example can be found here: [2]
  40. http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1204985
  41. Bukhari 1250 is misquoted here: [3]. The site quotes Sahih Muslim correctly but ignores this hadith from the same book, where Muhammad says the dead Jew is being punished eternally.
  42. http://seekershub.org/ans-blog/2011/02/11/is-it-true-that-someone-threw-trash-on-the-prophet-peace-and-blessings-of-allah-be-upon-him/
  43. http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=283960