Farewell Sermon

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The Farewell Sermon (خطبة الوداع‎, Khuṭbatu l-Wadā') is purported to be the Prophet Muhammad's final sermon to his followers before his death in 632 CE. However like most elements of the Islamic tradition our sources for this are extremely late, in this case At-Tabari writing in the late 800's CE about an event which is purported to have taken place in 632 CE. The mention of "the Sunnah of the prophet" is clearly apycrophal, as Patricia Crone has shown in God's caliph, since such a concept did not exist in actual khalifal/Islamic jurisprudence until well into the Abbassid period. The entirety of the supposed speech shows up in Tabari, but other sources in the hadith repeat what appear to be its most salient point, reminding men to treat their wives well (like their pack animals) but echoing Qur'an 4:34 in commanding their forceful separation and beating in the case of disobedience. The command to beat disobedient wives appeared to be the main classical take-away from the speech, and it should be noted that a more recent retelling of the speech which omits this injunction is a recent fabrication and not part of the attested classical tradition.

Introduction

According to Muslim historians, Muhammad’s Farewell Sermon (خطبة الوداع‎, Khuṭbatu l-Wadā') was delivered on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah (Month of Hajj- Pilgrimage 632 CE) in the valley of mount Arafat. This area located in Saudi Arabia was, and still is, considered holy and even today non-Muslims are forbidden from entering.

The sermon took place ten years after Muhammad’s Hijra (هِجْرَة Migration) to Medina, meaning it was after conquering Mecca and wiping the infidels from the land.

Before we begin our analysis of the Farewell Sermon, we must note that as an event, it took place following this Qur'anic revelation:

O ye who believe! Truly the Mushrikuns (Pagans and all unbelievers) are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

Accordingly, the listeners were all strictly Muslim. Muhammad was addressing his own people, since no others were allowed to enter the area of the Sacred Mosque, which includes the Plain of Arafat.

Text of Farewell Sermon

O people, listen to my words. I do not know whether I shall ever meet you again in this place after this year. O people, your blood and your property are sacrosanct until you meet your Lord, just as this day and this month of yours are sacred. Surely you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your deeds. I have [already] made this known. Let he who has a pledge return it to the one who entrusted him with it; all usury is abolished, but your capital belongs to you. Wrong not and you shall not be wronged. Allah has decreed that there will be no usury, and the usury of Abbas b. Abd al-Muttalib is abolished, all of it. All blood shed in the pre-Islamic days is to be left unavenged. The first such claim I revoke is that of Ibn Rabiah b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib, who was nursed among the Banu Layth and was slain by the Banu Hudhayl. His is the first blood shed in the pre-Islamic days with which I shall set an example. O people, indeed Satan despairs of ever being worshipped in this land of yours. He will be pleased, however, if he is obeyed in a thing other than that, in matters you minimize. So beware of him in your religion, O people, intercalculating a month is an increase in unbelief whereby the unbelievers go astray; one year they make it profane, and hallow it another [in order] to agree with the number that Allah has hallowed, and so profane what Allah has hallowed, and hallow what Allah has made profane. Time has completed its cycle [and is] as it was on the day that Allah created the heavens and the earth. The number of the months with Allah is twelve; [they were] in the Book of Allah on the day He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred, the three consecutive [months] and the Rajab [which is the month of] Mudar, which is between Jumada and Sha’ban.

Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread on your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency. If they do, then Allah permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with the custom. Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves. You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of Allah, so understand and listen to my words, O people. I have conveyed the Message, and have left you with something which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray; that is, the Book of Allah and the sunnah of his Prophet. Listen to my words, O people, for I have conveyed the Message and understand [it]. Know for certain that every Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, and that all Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a person [to take] from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves. O Allah, have I not conveyed the message?

Related Text

Narrated Amr ibn al-Ahwas al-Jushami: Amr heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say in his farewell address on the eve of his Last Pilgrimage, after he had glorified and praised Allah, he cautioned his followers: "Listen! Treat women kindly; they are like prisoners in your hands. Beyond this you do not owe anything from them. Should they be guilty of flagrant misbehaviour, you may remove them from your beds, and beat them but do not inflict upon them any severe punishment. Then if they obey you, do not have recourse to anything else against them. Listen! You have your rights upon your wives and they have their rights upon you. Your right is that they shall not allow anyone you dislike, to trample your bed and do not permit those whom you dislike to enter your home. Their right is that you should treat them well in the matter of food and clothing."
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 104
It was narrated that: Sulaiman bin Amr bin Ahwas said: “My father told me that he was present on the Farewell pilgrimage with the Messenger of Allah. He praised and glorified Allah, and reminder and exhorted (the people). The he said: 'I enjoin good treatment of women, for they are prisoners with you, and you have no right to treat them otherwise, unless they commit clear indecency. If they do that, then forsake them in their beds and hit them, but without causing injury or leaving a mark if they obey you, then do not seek means of annoyance against them. You have rights over your women and you women have rights over you. Your rights over you women are that they are not to allow anyone whom you dislike on treat on your bedding (furniture), not allow anyone whom you dislike to enter your houses. And their right over you are that should treat them kindly with regard to their clothing and food.' ” (Sahih)
You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you. You have the right that they should not defile your bed and that they should not behave with open unseemliness. If they do, God allows you to put them in separate rooms and beat them but not with severity. If they refrain from these things they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness. Lay injunctions on women kindly, for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons. You have taken them only as a trust from God, and you have the enjoyment of their persons by the words of God, so understand…
Ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. 969. p. 651
Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great.

Analysis of The Farewell Sermon

Muhammad begins by praising and thanking his Lord, then addresses his followers.

The Call for Jihad

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today".

"Take these words to those who could not be present here today," An extremely significant statement, as it is symbolically calling for a full-scale Jihad. He accentuates the importance of taking his words to those who are not present there; naturally, by whatever means he has employed thus far to take down all those who had not paid heed to him and his message.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, and this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your lord, and that he will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived...”

There is nothing noteworthy here, except the first few sentences which reaffirm the sacredness of the city and the period, purified from unbelievers. Confirming once again, that the audience was exclusively Muslim.

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things

Again, nothing unusual, as most preachers preach against Satan.

Misogyny

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste

The sermon suddenly sinks into misogyny. As the addressees were men, Muhammad reminds them of their rights over women, but (almost as an afterthought) adds that women too have rights over men. But these so-called rights of women are very much conditional.

If women abide by the rights given to men, only then do they deserve to be fed and clothed. As far as women's rights are concerned in this sermon, that is it. Men are also encouraged to be kind to their women so long as they stay quite and obedient, something akin to a pet (in the authentic account of this sermon, Muhammad does indeed liken women to domestic animals).[1]

Women even have restrictions placed on their friendships with others (male or female) as proven by Muhammad commanding chastity from women separately. Therefore, even innocent friendships with other women is not possible if the husband wishes it. They are under their husbands will and can only enjoy what we would consider the basic rights of a women in a traditional marriage only if they remain in full compliance to their men.

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

A mention of the pillars of Islam; Nothing of note.

Equality of Mankind

"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves"

This is the most often quoted portion of the Farewell Sermon, used by Muslims to preach of their prophet’s commitment to humanity. The talk is harsh on Arab prejudice against non-Arabs. It would seem, we have some glossy words against racism.

In reality, Muhammad was talking of piety in religious affairs. In this faculty, there can be no supreme race or language. Muhammad was compelled to preach this, due to his earlier call for Jihad. His followers would no-doubt encounter many non-Arabs and people of differing races, so in tough times, these kinds of appeasements would be necessary.

Racial Prejudice

On the other hand, Muhammad was very much prejudicial. For an example of this, we need only look to the following hadith where he hoists clannish supremacy:

Narrated Jabir bin Samura: I heard the Prophet saying, "There will be twelve Muslim rulers (who will rule all the Islamic world)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish."

The Quraish (قريش‎ Qurayš) were Arabs and Muhammad (himself being from the Quraish tribe) was speaking of the rulers who would rise up after him to rule over the Islamic world. When Muhammad says "will be" the connotation to his followers was and still is "should be". Moreover, this hadith has contributed a lot to the Shi'ite-Sunni rift in the Muslim world.

Brotherhood in Islam

Next we tackle the meaning of "brotherhood" in Islam; Whenever Muhammad spoke of brotherhood, it was only of the brotherhood between fellow believers (Muslims) and here too it is no different.

Muhammad starts by proclaiming "all mankind is from a common father and mother", but soon adds "Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood." It could not be stated any clearer than that; Only Muslims are brothers to Muslims. There is no mention of Atheists, Idolaters or even the so-called People of the Book who themselves are often equated with Idolaters.

Muhammad began his speech with the call for Jihad, so this has much significance. It was a call to stretch beyond their current dominion and for this purpose he alerts only those whom he considers part of the brotherhood. When the going gets tough, Muslims (and only Muslims) should conserve the brotherhood. We now move onto the final part of the sermon.

The Termination of Prophethood

"Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone. O People, no prophet or apostle will be come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray. All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people".

Muhammad reaffirms the termination of prophethood by saying "no new faith will be born." Once again, "will be born", when spoken by Muhammad, means "should be born."

This speech took place after winning over the unbelievers of Mecca. He had already expelled the entirety of the Jewish population from the land, and cleansed his holy city of unbelievers. Islam had finally won over existing faiths, and likewise there should be no other faiths in the future. The sentiment expressed here often used as grounds for the prosecution of "deviants" such as the Baha'i, Ahmadiyya, and indeed Shi'a communities in the Muslim world.

He continues by saying "I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray". As with the beginning, he concludes the sermon with the reiteration for Jihad. "All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again" And by doing so, they have to follow Qur'an and Sunnah of the prophet. This takes us back to the Qur'an.

The Meaning of Fitna

And fight them on until there is no more Fitna, and it all becomes the religion of Allah altogether and everywhere; then if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do

The Arabic word Fitna (فِتْنَةٌ‎) does not have the same meaning as given by our three official translators (Yusuf Ali, Picktall, Shakir), which is "tumult" and "oppression". To understand the true meaning of this word as spoken by Muhammad, we need to look towards the universally accepted Qur'anic commentary by Ibn Kathir:

"Ibn `Umar came to us and was asked, "What do you say about fighting during Fitnah Ibn `Umar said, "Do you know what Fitnah refers to Muhammad was fighting against the idolators, and at that time, attending (or residing with) the idolators was a Fitnah (trial in religion). Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah...) "So that there is no more Shirk.

It is evident here that the word "Fitna" denotes polytheism or anything un-Islamic.

Conclusion

Muhammad started his sermon, proclaiming the importance of conveying his message to those who were absent. Who are these absentees? There weren’t many Muslims absent. Ali had been called back from Yemen to partake in this pilgrimage. Moreover, Muhammad did not say anything new in this sermon to his Muslim followers.

Muhammad preached on (Strictly Muslim) brotherhood, then of the pillars of Islam, All of which had been already established. Five prayers a day, fasting, Zakat (giving alms), performing hajj; Jizyah too was established by then. There was no need to repeat any of this information to the well-informed Muslims.

Therefore, we can conclude that the absentees being referred to were in fact the non-Muslims of foreign lands. Muhammad was alerting his followers to convey the message of Islam to the absentees, who were yet to become Muslims. As has been mentioned previously, he signaled this in the introduction and conclusion of his speech. Convey this message to the absentees.

Muslim historians tell us what happened soon after this farewell sermon:

Then the apostle returned and stopped in Medina for the rest of Dhul Hijja, Muharram and Safar. He ordered the people to make an expedition to Syria and put over them Usama bin Zayd; his freed slave. He ordered him to lead his cavalry into the territory of the Balqa and Al-Darum in the land of Palestine. The men got ready and all the first emigrants went with Usama.
Ibn Ishaq: 970

An expedition to Syria, which is far beyond Mecca. So jihad had begun straight after Muhammad’s farewell speech. Muhammad sent messengers to distant kings including; Negus, Chosroes of Persia, and the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius, to whom he wrote:

"...I [Muhammad] invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe..."

He ordered his ummah to take his message to the absentees, and the precedence in how to approach this task was set by Muhammad himself. "Take these words to those who could not be present here today". Muhammad ordered it, and his followers complied by invading nation after nation in what is now referred to as the Arab or Muslim conquests. The message of Muhammad’s farewell sermon has to be understood under the context in which it was delivered, otherwise its true meaning is lost.

It is obvious that the sermon has been cut short while reporting. Additions may not have been made, but there was almost certainly a great deal of deletion or forgetfulness. The reason being that this sort of sermon is usually lengthy, but this particular one, if accepted as genuine, is rather short.

See Also

External Links

References

  1. al-Tabari, Vol IX, No. 1754