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The early Islamic tradition portrays two distinct phases to the career of the prophet: the Meccan period, characterized by peaceful exhortations to the pagan people of Mecca to abandon their gods and embrace Islam, and the Medinian period, characterized by expanding conflicts with neighboring Jewish tribes and the pagans of Mecca. According to the sira and many hadith traditions, during this period Muhammad both ordered and condoned numerous confrontations and assassinations against his enemies in Mecca and Medina. These military operations constitute Jihad, Arabic for struggle, a holy duty incumbent upon all able-bodied Muslim men to engage in armed struggle to expand the reach of Islam. Men who die "on the path of Allah" will be shahids who will enjoy 72 Virgins in paradise, and those who live and are victorious will enjoy divinely-approved booty in this world. The first target of the jihad are the pagans of Mecca and their holy shrine the Ka'bah, however the Qur'an and many of the sayings of the prophet make clear that jihad is a duty incumbent upon all Muslims until "the religion, all of it, is to Allah" (Qur'an 8:39). Muhammad was the leader of these military campaigns and played the role of supreme commander. He also took part in the battles himself, fighting and even being wounded. Jihad was thus a fundamental part of early Islam according to its own tradition and a central occupation of its prophet.
... He asked: AbuHamzah, did you fight with the Apostle of Allah? He replied: Yes. I fought with him in the battle of Hunayn. The polytheists came out and invaded us so severely that we saw our horses behind our backs. Among the people (i.e. the unbelievers) there was a man who was attacking us, and striking and wounding us (with his sword). Allah then defeated them. They were then brought and began to take the oath of allegiance to him for Islam...
Hamzah came with his bow slung over his shoulder. He was a great hunter, the strongest man of the Quraysh. A woman rose up and said, ‘If only you had seen what your nephew Muhammad had to endure just now before you came. Abu Jahl spoke to him offensively. Hamzah was carried away by a fury, as it was Allah's will to honor him this way. He went off quickly, not stopping to speak to anyone. Instead of circumambulating the Ka'aba, he was ready to attack Abu Jahl when he saw him. When he entered the mosque, he saw him sitting among the people. Hamzah raised his bow and gave Abu Jahl a blow which split his head open in an ugly way. He said, ‘Do you insult him when I am a member of his religion? Hit me back if you can.'
Umar became a Muslim, he being a strong, stubborn man whose protégés none dare attack. The prophet's companions were so fortified by him and Hamza that they got the upper hand on the Quraysh. ‘We could not pray at the Ka'aba until Umar became a Muslim, and then he fought the Quraysh until we could pray there.'
Uhud commanded the Apostles archers. He was killed in the battle of Yemen as a martyr. Abu was present at all of the Apostle's battles and died in Byzantine territory as a martyr. Mu'adh was present at every raid. He was killed at Badr as a martyr. Mu'awwidh, his brother, shared the same glory. Umara was at every battle and died a martyr in Yemen. As'ad died before Badr when the Prophet's mosque was being built. The Apostle put Amr in command of the rearguard. He died at Uhud as a martyr. Abdallah led many raids and was slain as a martyr at Muta. He was one of Muhammad's commanders. Khallad fought at Badr, Uhud, and Khandaq. He was martyred fighting the [Jewish] Qurayza. The Apostle said that he would have the reward of two martyrs.
The Apostle prepared for war in pursuance of Allah’s command to fight his enemies and to fight the infidels who Allah commanded him to fight.
The Quraysh said, ‘Muhammad and his Companions have violated the sacred month, shed blood, seized property, and taken men captive. Muhammad claims that he is following obedience to Allah, yet he is the first to violate the holy month and to kill.'
Our lances drank of Amr's blood and lit the flame of war.
I am fighting in Allah’s service. This is piety and a good deed. In Allah’s war I do not fear as others should. For this fighting is righteous, true, and good.
When the Allah's Apostle said, ‘70,000 of my followers shall enter Paradise like the full moon,' Ukkasha asked if he could be one of them. Then a lesser Ansari asked to be included, but the Prophet replied, ‘Ukkasha beat you to it and my prayer is now cold.'
When the Apostle was in Safra, Nadr was assassinated. When Muhammad reached Irq al-Zabyah he killed Uqbah. When the Prophet ordered him to be killed, Uqbah said, ‘Who will look after my children, Muhammad?' "Hellfire,' the Apostle replied, and he was killed.
In peace you are wild asses—rough and coarse. And in war you are like women wearing corsets. But I care not so long as my hand can grasp my trusty blade.
Allah said, ‘Do not turn away from Muhammad when he is speaking to you. Do not contradict his orders. And do not be a hypocrite, one who pretends to be obedient to him and then disobeys him. Those who do so will receive My vengeance. You must respond to the Apostle when he summons you to war.
I will cast terror into the hearts of those who reject Me. So strike off their heads and cut off their fingers. All who oppose Me and My Prophet shall be punished severely.
Muslims, fight in Allah’s Cause. Stand firm and you will prosper. Help the Prophet, obey him, give him your allegiance, and your religion will be victorious.
Prophet exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty good fighters they will defeat two hundred for they are a senseless people. They do not fight with good intentions nor for truth.
If they ask you for peace on the basis of Islam (submission), make peace on that basis. Be of one mind by His religion.
Ka'b's body was left prostrate [humbled in submission]. After his fall, all of the Nadir Jews were brought low. Sword in hand we cut him down. By Muhammad's order we were sent secretly by night. Brother killing brother. We lured him to his death with guile [cunning or deviousness]. Traveling by night, bold as lions, we went into his home. We made him taste death with our deadly swords. We sought victory for the religion of the Prophet.
Thereupon Mas'ud leapt upon Sunayna, one of the Jewish merchants with whom his family had social and commercial relations and killed him. The Muslim's brother complained, saying, ‘Why did you kill him? You have much fat in you belly from his charity.' Mas'ud answered, ‘By Allah, had Muhammad ordered me to murder you, my brother, I would have cut off your head.' Wherein the brother said, ‘Any religion that can bring you to this is indeed wonderful!' And he accepted Islam.
The Apostle, wearing two coats of mail, drew up his troops for battle, about 700 men. There were 50 archers. Muhammad said, ‘Keep their cavalry away with your arrows.' Then he asked, ‘Who will take my sword with its right and use it as it deserves to be used?' Abu Dujana asked, ‘What is its right, Apostle?' ‘That you should smite the enemy with it until it bends.' When Dujana took the sword from the Apostle's hand he walked toward the fight reciting: ‘I'm the man who took the sword when "Use it right" was the Prophet's word for the sake of Allah.' When Muhammad saw Dujana strutting, he said, ‘This is a gait which Allah hates except on an occasion like this.'
‘Come here you son of a female circumciser.' His mother was Umm Anmar, a female circumciser in Mecca. Hamza smote and killed him.
Abu Dujana said, ‘I saw a person inciting the enemy, shouting violently. When I made for him, I lifted my sword and he shrieked, and lo, it was a woman. I respected the Prophet's sword too much to use it on a girl.'" Ishaq:380 "We attacked them thrusting, slaying, chastising, and driving them before us with blows on every side. Had not women seized their war banner they would have been sold in the markets like chattel.
Then Allah sent down His help to the Muslims and fulfilled His promise. They slew the enemy with the sword until they cut them off from their camp and there was a rout.
The Muslims were put to the fight and the Meccans slew many of them. It was a day of trial and testing in which Allah honored several with martyrdom.
Perhaps Allah will grant us martyrdom.' So they took their swords and sallied out until they mingled with the [retreating] army. One was killed by the Meccans, the other by his fellow Muslims who failed to recognize him. One of the young men's fathers confronted Muhammad and said, ‘You have robbed my son of his life by your deception and brought great sorrow to me.'
Hind [a Meccan woman who had lost her father, husband, son, and brother to Muhammad's raiders at Badr] stopped to mutilate the Muslim dead, cutting off their ears and noses until she was able to make anklets and necklaces of them. Then she ripped open Hamzah's body for his liver and chewed it. Then she climbed a high rock and screamed rajaz poetry at the top of her voice, taunting us. ‘We have paid you back for Badr. A war that follows a war is always violent. I could not bear the loss of Utba nor my brother, his uncle, or my first-born son. I have slaked my vengeance and fulfilled my vow.' Umar [the future leader of the Islamic world] recited these verses back to her: ‘The vile woman was insolent, and she was habitually base with disbelief. May Allah curse Hind, she with the large clitoris. …Her backside and her genitals are covered with ulcers as a result of spending too much time in the saddle. Did you set out seeking to avenge our killing of your father and your son at Badr? And for your husband, who was wounded in the backside, lying in his blood, and your brother, all of them coated in the grime of the pit. What a foul deed you committed. Woe to you Hind, the shame of the age.'
Amr Jamuh was a very lame man. He had four lion-like sons who were present at the Apostle’s battles. At Uhud he came to the Prophet and told him that his sons wanted to keep him back and prevent his joining the army. ‘Yet, by Allah, I hope to tread in the Heavenly Garden of Paradise despite my lameness. The Apostle said, ‘Allah has excused you, and Jihad is not incumbent on you.’ Then Muhammad turned to his sons and said, ‘You need not prevent him. Perhaps Allah will favor him with martyrdom.’ So the lame old man went into battle and was killed.
Abu Qasim [Muhammad] said, ‘I testify concerning these that all wounded for Allah's sake will be raised with his wounds bleeding, the color of blood, the smell of musk. Look for the one who has remembered the most surahs and put him in front of his Companions in one mass grave.'
When the Apostle came home he handed his sword to his daughter Fatima, saying, ‘Wash the blood from this, daughter, for by Allah it has served me well today.'
The day of Uhud was a day of trial, calamity, and heart-searching on which Allah tested the believers. He put the hypocrites [peaceful Muslims] on trial, those who professed faith with their tongue and hid unbelief in their hearts. And it was a day in which Allah honored with martyrdom those whom He willed.
Allah helped you at Badr when you were contemptible, so fear Allah. Fear Me, for that is gratitude for My kindness. Is it not enough that your Lord reinforced you with three thousand angels? Nay, if you are steadfast against My enemies, and obey My commands, fearing Me, I will send five thousand angels clearly marked. Allah did this as good news for you that your hearts might be at rest. The armies of My angels are good for you because I know your weakness. Victory comes only from Me.
How many prophets has death in battle befallen and how many multitudes with him? They did not show weakness toward their enemies and were not humiliated when they suffered in the fight for Allah and their religion. That is steadfastness. Allah loves the steadfast.
Allah said, ‘I let them get the better of you to test you. So fear Me and obey Me. If you had believed in what My Prophet brought from Me you would not have received a shock from the Meccan army. But We cause days like this so that Allah may know those who believe and may choose martyrs from among you. Allah must distinguish between believers and hypocrites so that He can honor the faithful with martyrdom.
Did you think that you would enter Paradise and receive My reward before I tested you so that I might know who is loyal? You used to wish for martyrdom before you met the enemy. You wished for death before you met it. Now that you have seen with your own eyes the death of swords…will you go back on your religion, Allah's Book, and His Prophet as disbelievers, abandoning the fight with your enemy? He who turns back [from fighting] in his religion will not harm Allah.'
I promise to give you victory over your enemy. You routed them with the sword, killing them by My permission. Then you deserted Me and disobeyed My order and disputed about the order of My Prophet. He told the archers to stay put. But after I showed you what you were desiring, the Meccan wives and property, you desired the spoil and abandoned the order to fight. Only those who fought for religion did not transgress in going after the booty. Allah reproached the hypocrites for running away from their Prophet and paying no heed when he called to them.
Ask them for their help. Thereby make the religion of Islam agreeable to them. And when you are resolved in the matter of religion concerning fighting your enemy you will have the advantage.
One whom I do not suspect told me that he was asked about these verses and he said, ‘We asked Muhammad about them and we were told that when our brethren were slain at Uhud Allah put their spirits in the crops of green birds which come down to the rivers of the Garden and eat of its fruits. They say, "We should like our spirits to return to our bodies and then return to the earth and fight for You until we are killed again.'
‘If our fellow Muslims knew what Allah has done for us they would not dislike fighting or shrink from war!' And Allah said, ‘I will tell them of you,' so He sent down to His Apostle these verses.
Allah killed twenty-two polytheists at Uhud.
War has distracted me, but blame me not, ‘tis my habit. Struggling with the burdens it imposes, I bear arms bestride my horse at a cavalry’s gallop, running like a wild ass in the desert.
The Apostle swore that there was no believer who had parted from the world and wanted to return to it for a single hour even if he could possess it with all it has except the martyr who would like to return and fight for Allah and be killed a second time.
If you kill us, the true religion is ours. And to be killed for the truth is to find favor with Allah. If you think that we are fools, know that the opinion of those who oppose Islam is misleading. We are men of war who get the utmost from it. We inflict painful punishment on those who oppose us…. If you insult Allah's Apostle, Allah will slay you. You are a cursed, rude fellow! You utter filth, and then throw it at the clean-robed, godly, and faithful One.
Amr and an Ansari waited until they were asleep. Then Amr killed them, thinking that he had taken vengeance for the Muslims who had been slain. When he came to the Messenger, he told him what had happened. The Prophet said, ‘You have killed men for whom I shall have to pay blood-money.'
Helped by the Holy Spirit we smited Muhammad’s foes. The Apostle sent a message to them with a sharp cutting sword.
A sharp sword in the hand of a brave man kills his adversary.
The rules of the Prayer of Fear were revealed during this raid [4:102]. The Messenger divided the Companions into two groups; one stood facing the enemy while the other stood behind the Prophet. He magnified Allah by shouting ‘Allahu Akbar.’ Then he and those behind him performed a rak’ah and prostrated themselves.
Among us was Allah's Apostle whose command we obey. When he gives an order we do not examine it. The spirit descends on him from his Lord. We tell him about our wishes and our desires which is to obey him in all that he wants. Cast off fear of death and desire it. Be the one who barters his life. Take your swords and trust Allah. With a compact force holding lances and spears we plunged into a sea of men…. and all were made to get their fill of evil. We are men who see no blame in him who kills.
Now that Allah has conferred Islam on us, and made us famous, shall we give them our property? By Allah, we will offer them only the sword until Allah judges between us.' ‘As you wish,' said Allah's Messenger.
‘I summon you to Allah, to His Messenger, and to Islam.’ Amr replied, ‘I have no use for these.’ So Ali said, ‘Then I summon you to fight.’ Amr replied, ‘Why, son of my brother? By Allah, I do not want to kill you.’ Ali shouted, ‘But I, by Allah, want to kill you.’ Amr jumped from his horse and advanced toward Ali. The two fought until Ali killed Amr. He shouted, ‘Allahu Akbar!
As he returned to the Apostle smiling with joy [for having killed his uncle] Jumar asked him if he had stripped Amr of his armor. ‘No,’ Ali answered. ‘I saw his private parts and was ashamed.’
The Jews were made to come down, and Allah's Messenger imprisoned them. Then the Prophet went out into the marketplace of Medina, and he had trenches dug in it. He sent for the Jewish men and had them beheaded in those trenches. They were brought out to him in batches. They numbered 800 to 900 boys and men.
Then Allah said, ‘Some of you have fulfilled your vow to Me by dying; you have finished your work and returned to Me like those who sought martyrdom in prior battles. And some are still waiting to capitalize on Allah's promise of martyrdom. You do not hesitate in your religion and never doubt.'
On the day the Qurayza Jews were slain, one Muslim was martyred. A stone was thrown on him and it inflicted a shattering wound. The Apostle said, ‘He will have the reward of two martyrs.'
We attacked them fully armed, swords in hand, cutting through heads and skulls.
We are steadfast trusting Him. We have a Prophet by whom we will conquer all men
Allah commanded that horses should be kept for His enemy in the fight so they might vex them. We obeyed our Prophet’s orders when he called us to war. When he called for violent efforts we made them. The Prophet’s command is obeyed for he is truly believed. He will give us victory, glory, and a life of ease. Those who call Muhammad a liar disbelieve and go astray. They attacked our religion and would not submit.
Muhammad found that the Lihyan had been warned. They had taken secure positions on the mountaintops. After he failed to take them by surprise as he intended, he said, ‘If we go down to Usfan, the Meccans will think we have come to [terrorize] them.’
One of the favors which Allah conferred upon his Prophet was that these two tribes of the Ansar, the Aws and the Khazraj, used to vie with one another like stallions to carry out the will of Muhammad. The Aws did not do anything which benefited him without the Khazraj saying, ‘By Allah they will not gain superiority over us in Islam in the eyes of the Messenger by doing this.' And they would not cease until they had done something similar. Thus when the Aws killed Ka'b Ashraf on account of his hostility to Muhammad, the Khazraj conferred to find a man comparable to Ka'b in hostility and called to mind Sallam Huqayq in Khaybar. They asked the Prophet for permission to kill him, and it was granted.
Allah, what a fine band you have, one willing to kill Sallam and Ashraf! We went with sharp swords, like fighting lions. We came upon their homes and made them drink death with our swift-slaying swords. Looking for the victory of our Prophet's religion, we ignored every risk.
If the Lihyan had remained in their homes they would have met bands of fine fighters, audacious warriors who terrorize. They would have confronted an irresistible force glittering like stars. But they were weasels, sticking to the clefts of rocks instead.
Do the bastards think that we are not their equal in fighting? We are men who believe there is no shame in killing. We don’t turn from piercing lances. We smite the heads of the haughty with blows that quash the zeal of the unyielding [non-Muslims]. We’re heroes, protecting our war banner. We are a noble force, as fierce as wolves. We preserve our honor and protect our property by smashing heads.
When Allah’s Messenger heard about the Mustaliq gathering against him he set out and met them at one of their watering holes near the coast. The people advanced and fought fiercely. Allah caused the Mustaliq to fight and killed some of them. Allah gave the Apostle their children, women, and property as booty.
The Messenger said, ‘Woe to the Quraysh! War has devoured them! What harm would they suffer if they left me to deal with the rest of the Arabs? If the Arabs defeat me, that will be what they want. If Allah makes me prevail over the Arabs, the Quraysh can enter Islam [surrender] en masse. Or they can fight. I shall not cease to fight against them for the mission which Allah has entrusted me until Allah makes me victorious or I perish.
Muhammad, you have collected a mixed group of people and brought them to your kin to destroy them. By Allah, I see both prominent people and rabble who are likely to flee, deserting you tomorrow.' Now Abu Bakr who was standing behind the Apostle, said, ‘Go suck the clitoris of Al-Lat!'
Allah saw what was in their hearts so he rewarded them with victory and with as much spoil as they could take. Allah promised that they would soon capture a great deal of booty.
When Muhammad received a report that Uthman had been killed, he said, ‘We will not leave until we fight it out with the enemy.' He summoned the people to swear allegiance. The Prophet's crier announced: People, an oath of allegiance! The Holy Spirit has descended!'
On the day of Hudaybiyah we swore allegiance to the Messenger while Umar was holding his hand under the acacia tree. It was a pledge unto death.
Umar jumped up, walking beside Jandal, saying, ‘Be patient. They are only pagans, and the blood of any of them is no more than the blood of a dog!' Umar held the hilt of his sword close to him. He said, ‘I hoped he would take the sword and kill his father with it.' But Jandal was too attached to his father to kill him.
Abu Jandal, Suhayl's son, escaped and joined Abu Basir. Nearly seventy Muslim men gathered around them and they harassed the Quraysh. Whenever they heard of a Meccan caravan setting out for Syria, they intercepted it, and killed everyone they could get a hold of. They tore every caravan to pieces and took the goods. The Quraysh, therefore, sent to the Prophet, imploring him for the sake of Allah and the bond of kinship to send word to them.
Allah's Apostle besieged the final [Jewish] community of Khaybar until they could hold out no longer. Finally, when they were certain that they would perish, they asked Muhammad to banish them and spare their lives, which he did. The Prophet took possession of all their property.
When the people of Fadak heard what had happened, they sent word to the Messenger, asking him to banish them and spare their lives, saying they too would leave him their property. When the people of Khaybar surrendered on these conditions, the survivors asked Muhammad to employ them on their farms for a half share of whatever they produced. They said, ‘We know more about farming.' So Muhammad made peace with them for a half share, provided that: ‘If we want to expel you, we may.' He made a similar arrangement with Fadak. So Khaybar became the prey of the Muslims, while Fadak belonged exclusively to the Messenger of Allah, becoming his personal property, because the Muslims had not attacked its people with cavalry.
Masud was one of those who found martyrdom at Khaybar. Muhammad said, ‘He has with him now his two dark-eyed virgins. When a martyr is slain, his two virgins pet him, wiping the dust from his face. They say, "May Allah throw dust on the face of the man who did this to you, and slay him who slew you!"
Get out of his way, you infidel unbelievers. Every good thing goes with the Apostle. Lord, I believe in his word. We will fight you about its interpretations as we have fought you about its revelation with strokes that will remove heads from shoulders and make enemies of friends.
Allah bless the martyrs lying dead at Mu'ta. Refresh their bones for they fought for Allah's sake like good Muslims, stallions clad in mail. We are a people protected by Allah to whom he has revealed His Book, excelling in glory and honor. Our enlightened minds cover up the ignorance of others. They would not embark on such a vicious enterprise.
Abu Sufyan went to Muhammad in Medina to affirm the peace treaty, but Muhammad refused to speak to him.
Hassan incited the men, reciting: ‘This is the time for war. Don’t feel safe from us. Our swords will open the door to death.’
Muhammad commanded the people to prepare for the foray [raid, incursion, sortie, attack, or assault]. The Messenger informed his troops that he was going to Mecca. He ordered them to prepare themselves and ready their equipment quickly. He said, ‘O Allah, keep spies and news from the Quraysh until we take them by surprise in their land.'
The squadrons of the Messenger, composed of Emigrants and Ansar in iron armor with only their eyes visible, passed by. His company had become great. Woe to you, none can withstand him. It was all due to his prophetic office.
The Muslims met them with their swords. They cut through many arms and skulls. Only confused cries and groans could be heard over our battle roars and snarling.
Another victim was Huwayrith. He used to insult Muhammad in Mecca. Huwayrith was put to death by Ali. The Messenger ordered Miqyas' assassination only because he had killed an Ansar who had killed his brother by mistake and then became a renegade by rejecting Islam.
When the populace settled down, Muhammad went to the Ka'aba and compassed it seven times on his camel, touching the Black Stone with a stick. Then he went inside the Temple. There he found a dove made of wood. He broke it in his hands and threw it away."
Allah said, I have sent an army. Every day they curse, battle and lampoon.
We expelled the people and smote them with our swords the day the good Prophet entered Mecca. We pierced their bodies with cuts and thrusts. And we shot them with our feathered shafts. Our ranks went in with lances leveled. We came to plunder as we said we would. We pledged our faith to the Apostle on this day of fear.
The Apostle sent out troops to the territories surrounding Mecca inviting men to Allah. Among those he sent was Khalid. He was ordered to go as a missionary. Khalid subdued the Jadimah and killed some of them.
One of the Banu Jadimah said, ‘God take reprisals on the Muslims for the evil they did to us. They stole our goods and divided them. Their spears came at us not once but twice. Their squadrons came upon us like a swarm of locusts. Were it not for the religion of Muhammad, their cavalry would never have attacked.
The Messenger turned to Abu Sufyan, who stood fast fighting that day. He had become an excellent Muslim after embracing Islam.
Muhammad is the man, an Apostle of my Lord. Evil was the state of our enemy so they lost the day. Fortunes change and we came upon them like lions from the thickets. The armies of Allah came openly, flying at them in rage, so they could not get away. We destroyed them and forced them to surrender. In the former days there was no battle like this; their blood flowed freely. We slew them and left them in the dust. Those who escaped were choked with terror. A multitude of them were slain. This is Allah’s war in which those who do not accept Islam will have no helper. War destroyed the tribe and fate the clan.
In faith I do not fear the army of fate. He gave us the blood of their best men to drink when we led our army against them. We are a great army with a pungent smell. And we attack continuously, wherever our enemy is found.
Allah's Apostle said, ‘If you get hold of Bijad, don't let him escape for he has done something evil.'
Crushing the heads of the infidels and splitting their skulls with sharp swords, we continually thrust and cut at the enemy. Blood gushed from their deep wounds as the battle wore them down. We conquered bearing the Prophet’s fluttering war banner. Our cavalry was submerged in rising dust, and our spears quivered, but by us the Prophet gained victory.
We helped Allah’s Apostle, angry on his account, with a thousand warriors. We carried his flag on the end of our lances. We were his helpers, protecting his banner in deadly combat. We dyed it with blood, for that was its color. We were the Prophet’s right arm in Islam. We were his bodyguards before other troops served him. We helped him against his opponents. Allah richly rewarded that fine Prophet Muhammad.
Our strong warriors obey his orders to the letter. By us Allah's religion is undeniably strong. You would think when our horses gallop with bits in their mouths that the sounds of demons are among them.
Since you have made Khalid chief of the army and promoted him, he has become a chief indeed, leading an army guided by Allah. Firmly clad in mail, warriors with lances leveled, we are a strong force not unlike a rushing torrent. We smite the wicked while we swear an oath to Muhammad…fighting in the quest of booty.
Red blood flowed because of our rage.
Ka’b reacted to the Apostle’s decision. He said, ‘We put an end to doubt at Khaybar. If our swords could have spoken, their blades would have said, “Give us Daus or Thaqif. We will tear off the roofs in Wajj. We will make homes desolate. Our cavalry will come upon you leaving behind a tangled mass. When we assault a town they sound a cry of alarm but our sharp cutting swords flash like lightning. By them we bring death to those who struggle against us. Flowing blood was mingled with saffron the morn the forces met. They were taken by surprise and we surrounded their walls with our troops. Our leader, the Prophet, was firm, steadfast, and full of wisdom. He was not frivolous nor light minded. We obey our Prophet and we obey a Lord who is Compassionate [Ar-Rahman]. We make you partners in peace and war. If you refuse we will fight you doggedly.
Our onslaught will not be a weak faltering affair. We shall fight as long as we live. We will fight until you turn to Islam, humbly seeking refuge. We will fight not caring whom we meet. We will fight whether we destroy ancient holdings or newly gotten gains. We have mutilated every opponent. We have driven them violently before us at the command of Allah and Islam. We will fight until our religion is established. And we will plunder them, for they must suffer disgrace.
When the Apostle returned to Medina after his raid on Ta'if, word spread that he had killed some of the men who had satirized and insulted him. The poets who were left spread in all directions.
The best men launch spears as if they were swords. They peer forward unweariedly. They devote their lives to their Prophet. In hand-to-hand fighting and cavalry attacks they purify themselves with the blood of the infidels. They consider that an act of piety.
The Apostle ordered Muslims to prepare for a military expedition so that he could raid the Byzantines.
The Byzantines encountered the Messenger's cavalry which was led by Khalid. Ukaydir was seized and his brother Hassan was killed. Muhammad spared his life and made peace with him on the condition that he pay the zakat tax.
‘You obey a stranger who encourages you to murder for booty. You are greedy men. Is there no honor among you?' Upon hearing those lines Muhammad said, ‘Will no one rid me of this woman?' Umayr, a zealous Muslim, decided to execute the Prophet's wishes. That very night he crept into the writer's home while she lay sleeping surrounded by her young children. There was one at her breast. Umayr removed the suckling babe and then plunged his sword into the poet. The next morning in the mosque, Muhammad, who was aware of the assassination, said, ‘You have helped Allah and His Apostle.' Umayr said. ‘She had five sons; should I feel guilty?' ‘No,' the Prophet answered. ‘Killing her was as meaningless as two goats butting heads.'
It is your folly to fight the Apostle, for Allah’s army is bound to disgrace you. Leaders of the infidels, why did you not learn?
Hamza's Islam was complete. He followed the Prophet's every command. The Quraysh recognized that by Hamzah's acceptance of Islam Muhammad had been made strong. Hamzah would protect him.
Umar bin al-Khattab was a staunch and mighty warrior. He accepted Islam, as had Hamzah before him. The Messenger's Companions began to feel stronger.
Allah had given his Messenger permission to fight by revealing the verse ‘And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is all for Allah.’
They plucked up courage and agreed to kill as many as they could and to seize what they had with them. Waqid shot an arrow at Amr and killed him. Then Abd Allah and his companions took the caravan and the captives back to Allah's Apostle in Medina. This was the first booty taken by the Companions of Muhammad.
Muhammad killed many Quraysh polytheists at Badr.
Gabriel brought down the following verse to the Messenger: ‘If you apprehend treachery from any people (with whom you have a treaty), retaliate by breaking off (relations).' When Gabriel had finished delivering this verse, the Prophet said, ‘I fear the Banu Qaynuqa.' It was on the basis of this verse that Muhammad advanced upon them.
We carried Ka'b's head and brought it to Muhammad during the night. We saluted him as he stood praying and told him that we had slain Allah's enemy. When he came out to us we cast Ashraf's head before his feet. The Prophet praised Allah that the poet had been assassinated and complimented us on the good work we had done in Allah's Cause. Our attack upon Allah's enemy cast terror among the Jews, and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear for his life.'
The morning after the murder of Ashraf, the Prophet declared, ‘Kill any Jew who falls under your power.'
In this year, the killing of Abu Rafi the Jew took place. The Messenger sent some Ansar under the command of Abd Allah and Abd Allah against the Jew. Abu Rafi used to injure and wrong the Prophet.... Abd Allah said to the others, ‘Stay where you are, and I will go and ingratiate myself with the doorkeeper to gain entrance.'
The Messenger called for his coat of armor and put it on. When they saw this they repented, ‘What an evil deed we have done. We have given him advice when inspiration comes to him!' Muhammad replied, ‘It is not fitting for a prophet to put on his coat of mail and take it off before fighting.' So the Prophet went out to Uhud at the head of a thousand of his Companions, having promised them victory.
Every time I opened a door, I shut it behind me from the inside, saying to myself, ‘If they become aware, they will not have time to stop me from killing him.' When I reached Rafi, he was in a dark room with his family. As I did not know where he was in the room, I said, ‘O Abu Rafi.' When he replied, I proceeded toward the voice and gave him a blow with my sword. He shouted and I came back, pretending to be a helper. I said, ‘O Abu,' changing the tone of my voice. He asked me, ‘I don't know who came to strike me with his sword.' Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. I hit him again and covered him with wounds, but I could not kill him, so I thrust the point of my sword into his stomach until it came out through his back. At that, I knew that I had killed him [in front of his wife and children]. I came out, filled with puzzlement, and went towards a ladder in order to get down but I fell into a moonlit night and sprained my foot. I bound it with my turban and moved on. I came to my companions and said, ‘By Allah, I will not leave till I hear the wailing of their women.' So, I did not move till I heard them crying for the Jewish merchant. I said, ‘Deliverance! Allah has killed Abu Rafi.' I got up, feeling no ailment, and proceeded till we came upon the Prophet and informed him.
The Khazraj asked the Prophet for permission to kill Sallam Huqayq, who was in Khaybar. He granted this.
Sallam's wife came out and we told her that we were Arabs in search of supplies. When we entered, we bolted the door on her so she gave a shout to warn him of our presence. We rushed upon him with our swords as he lay in his bed. He took his pillow and tried to fend us off. Abd Allah thrust his sword into his stomach and transfixed him while he was shouting, ‘Enough! Enough!' At once we went out but Abd Allah had bad eyesight, and he fell off the stairway, bruising his leg or arm. ‘How shall we know that the enemy of Allah is dead?' one of us asked. ‘I will go and look,' one replied. He set off and mingled with the people. He said, ‘I found him with the men of the Jews, and with his wife, who had a lamp in her hand, peering into his face. She said, ‘By the God of the Jews, he is dead.' I never heard any more pleasing words than these. We went to the Messenger of Allah and told him that we had killed the enemy of Allah. We disagreed in his presence about the killing of Sallam, each of us claiming to have done it. The Prophet said, ‘Bring me your swords.' We did and he looked at them. He said, ‘This sword of Abd Allah killed him. I can see the marks left by bones on it.'
When a blind Jew became aware of the presence of the Messenger and the Muslims he rose and threw dust in their faces, saying, ‘Even if you are a prophet, I will not allow you into my garden!' I was told that he took a handful of dirt and said, ‘If only I knew that I would not hit anyone else, Muhammad, I would throw it in your face.' Sa'd rushed in and hit him on the head with his bow and split the Jew's head open.
When the enemy overwhelmed the Holy Prophet he said, ‘Who will sell his life for me?'
May Allah's anger be intense against those who have bloodied the face of His Prophet." "By Allah, I never thirsted to kill anyone as I thirst to kill a Meccan.
I saw Hamzah cutting down men with his sword, sparing no one. He yelled out to us, ‘Come here, you son of a cutter-off of clitorises.' He hit Siba so swiftly, his sword could not be seen striking his head. So I balanced my javelin until I was satisfied. Then I hurled it at Hamzah. It struck him in the lower part of the belly with such force it came out between his legs. He came toward me, but was overcome and fell. I waited until he was dead and recovered my javelin. I returned to the camp since there was nothing else I wanted.
The Messenger said, ‘Hamzah is being cleansed by the angels. He went into battle in a state of ritual impurity when he heard the call to arms. That is why the angels are cleansing him.'
If you had seen what Muhammad did at the pit of Badr you would have been terror struck for as long as you lived. I requited Badr with its like.
When Muhammad saw Hamzah he said, ‘If Allah gives me victory over the Quraysh at any time, I shall mutilate thirty of their men!' When the Muslims saw the rage of the Prophet they said, ‘By Allah, if we are victorious over them, we shall mutilate them in a way which no Arab has ever mutilated anybody.
During Uhud, Quzman fought hard and killed seven to nine polytheists with his own hands, being brave, bold, and strong. But he got wounded so seriously, he had to be carried off by his comrades. They said, ‘Rejoice, you fought valiantly.' He replied, ‘For what have I fought?'
The battle was fought on the Sabbath. On the following day, Sunday, 16 Shawwal (March 24, 625) the Messenger of Allah's crier called out to the people to go in pursuit of the enemy. His only purpose was to lower the morale of the Quraysh; by going in pursuit of them, he wanted to give the impression that his strength was unimpaired, and that the Muslim casualties had not weakened their ability to engage in fighting.
The Muslims bivouacked for the night and were taken by surprise. So the Muslims took up their swords [not Qur’ans] to fight them, but the Lihyans said, ‘We do not want to kill you. We only want to get some money by selling you to the Meccans. We swear by Allah’s Covenant that we will not kill you.’ ‘By Allah,’ Asim said, ‘we will never accept a an agreement from an unbelieving infidel.’ They fought until they were killed.
Amr was sent by Muhammad to kill Abu Sufyan [the Quraysh leader and merchant]. The Prophet said, ‘Go to Abu Sufyan and kill him.' …When I entered Mecca I had a dagger ready to slay anybody who laid hold of me. My Ansar companion asked, ‘Should we start by circumambulating the Ka'aba seven times and praying two rak'ahs?' I said, ‘I know the Meccans better than you do.' But he kept pestering me until in the end we went to the Ka'aba, circumambulated it seven times, and prayed.
One of the Meccans recognized me and shouted, ‘That is Amr!' They rushed after us, saying, ‘By Allah, Amr has not come here for any good purpose! He has come for some evil reason.' Amr had been a cutthroat and a desperado before accepting Islam.
Amr said, ‘Let's wait here until the cry has died down. They are sure to hunt for us tonight and tomorrow. I was still in the cave when Uthman bin Malik came riding proudly on his horse. He reached the entrance to our cave and I said to my Ansar companion, ‘If he sees us, he will tell everyone in Mecca.' So I went out and stabbed him with my dagger. He gave a shout and the Meccans came to him while I went back to my hiding place. Finding him at the point of death, they said, ‘By Allah we knew that Amr came for no good purpose.' The death of their companion impeded their search for us, for they carried him away.
I went into a cave with my bow and arrows. While I was in it, a one-eyed man from the Banu Bakr came in driving some sheep. He said, ‘Who's there?' I said [lied], ‘I'm a Banu Bakr.' ‘So am I.' Then he laid down next to me, and raised his voice in song: ‘I will not believe in the faith of the Muslims.' I said, ‘You will soon see!' Before long the Bedouin went to sleep and started snoring. So I killed him in the most dreadful way that anybody has ever killed. I leant over him, struck the end of my bow into his good eye, and thrust it down until it came out the back of his neck. After that I rushed out like a wild beast and took flight. I came to the village of Naqi and recognized two Meccan spies. I called for them to surrender. They said no so I shot and arrow and killed one, and then I tied the other up and took him to Muhammad.
I had tied my prisoner's thumbs together with my bowstring. The Messenger of Allah looked at him and laughed so that his back teeth could be seen. Then he questioned me and I told him what had happened. ‘Well done!' he said, and prayed for me to be blessed.
Judayy went to Abd Allah Ibn Ubayy to ask for support. He said, ‘I found him sitting among a number of his companions while the Prophet's crier was calling men to arms. He said, ‘This is a clever trick of Muhammad's.' The Messenger of Allah besieged the Nadir Jews for fifteen days. In the end they made peace with him on the condition that the Prophet would not kill them and that their property and their coats of mail would be his.
The Messenger of Allah besieged the Nadir for fifteen days until he had reduced them to a state of utter exhaustion, so that they would give him what he wanted. The terms in which the Prophet made peace with the Jews were: he would not shed their blood, he would expel them from their lands and settlements, providing for every three of them a camel and a water-skin.
The Prophet fought them until he made peace with them on condition that they evacuated Yathrib. He expelled them to Syria but allowed them to keep what their camels could carry, except for their coats of mail and weapons.
There is a difference of opinion as to which of his expeditions took place after the one against the Nadir. Some say Muhammad remained in Yathrib for two months before leading a raid on Najd.
I have heard some stories about the digging of the trench in which there is an example of Allah justifying His Apostle and confirming his prophetic office. For example, Muhammad spat on a rock, sprinkled water on it, and it crumbled. Then the Apostle said, ‘I struck the first blow and what you saw flash out was that Iraq and Persia would see dog’s teeth. Gabriel informed me that my nation would be victorious over them. Then I struck my second blow, and what flashed out was for the pale men in the land of the Byzantines to be bitten by the dog’s teeth. Gabriel informed me that my nation would be victorious over them. Then I struck my third blow and Gabriel told me that my nation would be victorious over Yemen. Rejoice, victory shall come. This increased the Muslims faith and submission.
The Muslims and polytheists stayed in their positions for twenty nights with no fighting except for the shooting of arrows and the siege. When the trial became great for the people, the Messenger sent for the leaders of the Ghatafan [Meccan comrades]. He offered them a third of the date harvest of Medina on condition that they leave. The truce between the sides progressed to the point of drawing up a written document, but there was no witnessing or firm determination to make peace; it was only a matter of maneuvering.
Hassan was with the women and children. A Jew passed by and began to walk around his settlement. There was no one to protect them while the Apostle and his Companions were at the Meccans' throats. So I said: ‘Hassan, this Jew is walking around. I fear he will point out our weakness while the Muslims are too busy to attend to us. So go down to him and kill him.
‘Allah forgive you, daughter of Abd al-Muttalib,' Hassan said. ‘You know that I am not the man to do it.' When he said that to me I saw that nothing could be expected from him. I girded myself, took a club, and, having gone down from the fortress to the man, I struck him with the club until I killed him. When I had finished with him, I returned to the fortress and said, ‘Hassan, go down to him and strip him—only his being a man kept me from taking his clothes.' Hassan replied, ‘I have no need for his spoils.'
The Messenger of Allah commanded that all of the Jewish men and boys who had reached puberty should be beheaded. Then the Prophet divided the wealth, wives, and children of the Banu Qurayza Jews among the Muslims.
The Messenger commanded that furrows should be dug in the ground for the Qurayza. Then he sat down. Ali and Zubayr began cutting off their heads in his presence.
Then he set out at full speed after the enemy—he was like a beast of prey.
Akhram said, ‘If you believe in Allah and know that Paradise is real and that the Fire is real, don't stand between me and martyrdom!' But Abd-Rahman dismounted and thrust his spear into Akhram. So I shot Abd-Rahman with an arrow, and said, ‘Take that!'
According to Aisha: ‘A great number of Mustaliq were wounded. The Messenger took many captives, and they were divided among all the Muslims.
Urwah went to the Prophet. ‘Muhammad, tell me, if you exterminate your tribesmen—have you ever heard of any of the Arabs who has destroyed his own race before you?'
He began speaking to the Prophet again, stroking his beard. Mughira, clad in mail, was standing next to him with his sword. Whenever Urwah extended his hand toward the Prophet's beard, Mughira struck his hand with the lower end of the scabbard and said, ‘Take your hand away from his beard before you lose it!' Urwah raised his head and asked, ‘Who is this?' They said, ‘Mughira.' Urwah said, ‘Rude man, I am trying to rectify your act of treachery.' During the Time of Ignorance [pre-Islam] Mughira had accompanied some men and killed them, taking their money. The Apostle just smiled.
Abu Basir went out with his companions. When they stopped to rest he asked one of them, ‘Is this sword of yours sharp?' ‘Yes,' he replied. ‘May I look at it?' Basir asked. ‘If you wish.' Basir unsheathed the sword, attacked the man, and killed him. The other Muslim ran back to the Messenger, saying, ‘Your Companion has killed my friend.' While the man was still there, Abu Basir appeared girded with the sword. He halted before Muhammad and said, ‘Messenger, your obligation has been discharged.'
In this year, according to Waqidi, the Messenger dispatched the raiding party of Abu Ubaydah with forty men. They traveled through the night on foot and reached Qassah just before dawn. They raided the inhabitants, who escaped them by fleeing to the mountains. They took cattle, old clothes, and a man.
In this year a raiding party led by Zayd went to Jamum. He captured a Muzaynah woman named Halimah. She guided them to an encampment of the Banu Sulaym where they captured cattle, sheep, and prisoners.
In this year a raiding party led by Zayd went to al-Is. During it, Abu As'b's property was taken.
A fifteen-man raiding party led by Zayd went to Taraf against the Banu Thalabah. The Bedouins fled, fearing that Allah's Messenger had set out against them. Zayd took twenty camels from their herds. He was away four nights.
Muhammad sent him with an army against the Fazarah settlement. He met them in Qura and inflicted casualties on them and took Umm Qirfah prisoner. He also took one of Umm's daughters and Abdallah bin Mas'adah prisoner.
The Messenger appointed Abu Bakr as our commander, and we raided some of the Banu Fazarah. When we came near the watering place, Bakr ordered us to rest. After we prayed the dawn prayer, Abu ordered us to launch the raid against them. We went down to the watering hole and there we killed some people. I saw women and children among them, who had almost outstripped us; so I sent an arrow between them and the mountain. When they saw the arrow they stopped, and I led them back to Abu Bakr. Among them was a woman of the Banu Fazarah. She was wearing a worn-out piece of leather. With her was her daughter, among the fairest of the Arabs. Abu Bakr gave me her daughter as booty.
Abu Sufyan said, ‘We were merchants but the fighting between us and Muhammad has prevented us from journeying, so our wealth is depleted. Even after the truce with the Muslims, we fear that we still are not safe.'
After his return from Hudaybiyah, Allah's Messenger marched against Khaybar. He halted with his army in a valley between the people of Khaybar and the Ghatafan tribe to prevent the latter from assisting the Jews.
The next morning Allah opened the township of Sa'b bin Mu'adh for them to conquer. There was no stronghold in Khaybar more abounding in food. After the Prophet had defeated some of their settlements and taken their property, they reached the communities of Watib and Sulalim, which were the last of the Khaybar neighborhoods to be conquered. Muhammad besieged the inhabitants between thirteen and nineteen nights.
Allah’s Apostle besieged the final [Jewish] community until they could hold out no longer. Finally, when they were certain that they would perish, they asked Muhammad to banish them and spare their lives, which he did. The Prophet took possession of all their property.
The Prophet conquered Khaybar by force after fighting. Khaybar was something that Allah gave as booty to His Messenger. He took one-fifth of it and divided the remainder among the Muslims.
A raiding party led by Bahir went to Yumn. The Muslims went out and captured camels and sheep. A slave belonging to Uyaynah met them, and they killed him.
The battle cry of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah that night was: ‘Kill! Kill! Kill!’
We gave them some time until their herds had come back from pasture. After they had milked their camels and set them out to rest, we launched our raid. We killed some of them, drove away their camels, and set out to return. Meanwhile, the people appealed for aid from the rest of their tribe. But we moved quickly. Reinforced, the villagers were too powerful for us. But Allah sent clouds from out of the blue, and there was a torrent that no one could cross so we eluded the tribesmen with what we had taken. The battle cry of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah that night was: ‘Kill! Kill! Kill!'
The Messenger made peace with them on condition that the Zoroastrians should be required to pay the jizyah tax that one should not marry their women.
Abdallah married a woman but couldn't afford the nuptial gift. He came to the Prophet and asked for his assistance. He said, ‘Go out and spy on the Jusham tribe.' He gave me an emaciated camel and a companion. We set out armed with arrows and swords. We approached the encampment and hid ourselves. I told my companion, ‘If you hear me shout Allahu Akbar and see me attack, you should shout Allah is Greatest and join the fighting.'
When their leader, Rifa'ah, came within range, I shot an arrow into his heart. I leaped at him and cut off his head. Then I rushed toward the encampment and shouted, ‘Allahu Akbar!' The families who were gathered there shouted, ‘Save yourself.' They gathered what property they could, including their wives and children. We drove away a great herd of camels and many sheep and goats and brought them to the Messenger. I brought him Rifa'ash's head, which I carried with me. The Prophet gave me thirteen camels from that herd as booty, and I consummated my marriage.
The Prophet sent Ibn Abi out with a party of sixteen men. They were away for fifteen nights. Their share of booty was twelve camels for each man, each camel was valued in the accounting as being worth ten sheep. When the people they raided fled in various directions, they took four women, including one young woman who was very beautiful. She fell to Abu Qatadah. The Prophet asked Qatadah about her. He said, ‘She came from the spoils.' The Messenger said, ‘Give her to me.' So he gave her to him.
Abdallah Rawahah encouraged the men, saying, ‘By Allah, what you loathe is the very thing you came out to seek—martyrdom. We are not fighting the enemy with number, strength, or multitude, but we are fighting them with this religion with which Allah has honored us. So come on! Both prospects are fine: victory or martyrdom.'
I ask the Merciful One for a pardon and for a sword blow that makes a wide wound that shoots out foaming blood. For a deadly thrust by a thirsty sword, and a lance that pierces right through the guts and liver. People shall say, when they pass my grave, ‘Allah guided you the right way, O warrior.'
Muhammad said, ‘Woe to the Quraysh! If Allah's Apostle surprises them in their territory and enters Mecca by force, it means the destruction of the Quraysh.'
The Prophet said, ‘I think you will see Abu Sufyan [the leading Meccan merchant] come to strengthen the pact and extend the term.'
Sufyan went to Abu Bakr and asked him to intercede, but he refused. When Sufyan asked Umar to help [avert war], he replied, ‘No way. By Allah, if I had only ant grubs, I would fight you with them! Ali said, ‘Woe to you, Sufyan. When the Messenger has determined a thing it is useless for anyone to talk to him.'
When Abu Sufyan reported back to the Quraysh that Muhammad had given him no reply, they said, ‘Woe to you! By Allah, he did no more than play with you.'
There is nothing that you can do to make peace with him.
The Prophet sent out his army in divisions. Zubayr was in charge of the left wing. He was ordered to make an entry with his forces from Kuda. Sa’d was commanded to enter with forces by way of Kada. Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Today is a day for battle and war. Sanctuary is no more. Today the sacred territory is deemed profane [ungodly and sacrilegious].’ When one of the Muhajirs [Emigrants] heard him say this, he warned the Apostle, ‘It is to be feared that you would resort to violence.’ The Prophet ordered Ali to go after him, to take the flag from him, and fight with it himself.
Muhammad ordered that certain men should be assassinated even if they were found behind the curtains of the Ka'aba. Among them was Abdallah bin Sa'd. The reason that Allah's Messenger ordered that he should be slain was because he had become a Muslim and used to write down Qur'an Revelation. Then he apostatized [rejected Islam].
Abdallah bin Sa'd fled to Uthman, his brother, who after hiding him, finally surrendered him to the Prophet. Uthman asked for clemency. Muhammad did not respond, remaining silent for a long time. Muhammad explained, ‘By Allah, I kept silent so that one of you might go up to him and cut off his head!' One of the Ansar said, ‘Why didn't you give me a sign?' Allah's Apostle replied, ‘A prophet does not kill by pointing.'
Among those who Muhammad ordered killed was Abdallah bin Khatal. The Messenger ordered him to be slain because while he was a Muslim, Muhammad had sent him to collect the zakat tax with an Ansar and a slave of his.... His girls used to sing a satire about Muhammad so the Prophet ordered that they should be killed along with Abdullah. He was killed by Sa'id and Abu Barzah. The two shared in his blood. One of the singing girls was killed quickly but the other fled. So Umar caused his horse to trample the one who fled, killing her.
Also among those eliminated were Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl and Sarah, a slave of one of Abd Muttalib's sons. She taunted Muhammad while he was in Mecca.
The Messenger ordered six men and four women to be assassinated. One of these women was Hind, who swore allegiance and became a Muslim.
Allah had enabled Muhammad to take the persons of the Quraysh by force, giving him power over them so they were his booty. Their lives were now his spoil.
Alas for you, Banu Jadimah! It is Khalid. By Allah, after you lay down your weapons, it will be nothing but leather manacles, and after the manacles nothing but the cutting off of heads.' After they had laid down their arms, Khalid ordered that their hands should be tied behind their backs. Then he put them to the sword, smiting their necks, killing them.
The Messenger marched with 2,000 Meccans and 10,000 of his Companions who had come with him to facilitate the conquest of Mecca. Thus there were 12,000 in all.
While fighting the Banu Sa'd, Muslim horsemen seized Bijad. They herded his family around him like cattle, and they treated them roughly.
The Messenger and his companions went directly to Ta’if. They encamped there for a fortnight, waging war. The townsfolk fought the Muslims from behind the fort. None came out in the open. All of the surrounding people surrendered and sent their delegations to the Prophet. After besieging Ta’if for twenty days, Muhammad left and halted at Ji’ranah where the captives of Hunayn were held with their women and children. It is alleged that those captives taken numbered six thousand with women and children.
The Prophet continued to besiege the town, fighting them bitterly.
By Allah, I did not come to fight for nothing. I wanted a victory over Ta’if so that I might obtain a slave girl from them and make her pregnant.
Muhammad urged the Muslims by way of a meeting to help cover the expenses of Jihad in Allah’s Cause. The men provided mounts in anticipation of Allah’s reward.
When the Messenger reached Tabuk the governor of Aylah [a seaport at the north end of the Gulf of Aqabah] came to him, made a treaty, and agreed to pay the jizyah tax. The people of Jarba and Adhruh also offered to pay him the tax.
Hatim said, ‘Adi, whatever you were going to do before Muhammad's cavalry descended upon us, do it now, for I have seen the banners of his army.' When the Islamic cavalry left the settlement they took Hatim's daughter along with other captives. She was brought to the Messenger with slaves from Tayyi. He put her in an enclosure by the door of his mosque where the captives were detained.
Arabs are the most noble people in lineage, the most prominent, and the best in deeds. We were the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. We are Allah’s helpers and the viziers of His Messenger. We fight people until they believe in Allah. He who believes in Allah and His Messenger has protected his life and possessions from us. As for one who disbelieves, we will fight him forever in the Cause of Allah. Killing him is a small matter to us.
Malik has reported to me that you were the first from Himyar to embrace Islam and that you have killed infidels, so rejoice at your good fortune.
In this year the zakat was made obligatory, and the Messenger dispatched his agents to collect it. The verse was revealed: ‘Take the zakat from their wealth to purify them.'
The Messenger sent Khalid with an army of 400 to Harith [a South Arabian tribe] and ordered him to invite them to Islam for three days before he fought them. If they were to respond and submit, he was to teach them the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Prophet, and the requirements of Islam. If they should decline, then he was to fight them.
The Companions of the Prophet had set out not doubting that they would conquer, because of a vision Muhammad had seen. Therefore, when they saw the negotiations for peace, the retreat, and the obligations the Messenger agreed to—the Muslims felt so grieved about it that they were close to despair. Some were depressed to the point of death.
Killing disbelievers is a small matter to us.
Abdallah Azdi came to the Messenger, embraced Islam, and became a good Muslim. Allah’s Apostle invested Azdi with the authority over those who had surrendered and ordered him to fight the infidels from the tribes of Yemen. Azdi left with an army by the Messenger’s command. The Muslims besieged them for a month. Then they withdrew, setting a trap. When the Yemenites went in pursuit, Azdi was able to inflict a heavy loss on them.
The military expeditions (Ghazawat) in which the Messenger personally participated were twenty-six. Some say there were twenty-seven.
The armies and raiding parties sent by the Messenger of Allah between the time he came to Medina and his death (ten years) was forty-eight.
When it was feasible for me, I struck him with my sword and killed him. Then I departed, leaving his women to throw themselves at him. When I returned to the Prophet, he asked, ‘Is your mission accomplished?' ‘Yes. I have killed him.'